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ASTM A159 - Standard Specification for Automotive Gray Iron Castings

This specification applies to gray iron castings, cast in sand molds, used in the products of the automobile, truck, tractor, and allied industries.

The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard.

Table 1 Grades of gray iron

Grade

Casting hardness range

Description

G1800

HB 187 max
4.4 BID min or as agreed

ferritic-pearlitic

G2500

HB 170-229
4.6-4.0 BID or as agreed

pearlitic-ferritic

G3000

HB 187-241
4.4-3.9 BID or as agreed

pearlitic

G3500

HB 207-255
4.2-3.8 BID or as agreed

pearlitic

G4000

HB 217-269
4.1-3.7 BID or as agreed

pearlitic

Table 1.1 Typical chemical compositions of gray cast iron, %

Grade

Carbon

Silicon

Manganese

Sulfur, max

Phosphorus,
max

Approximate carbon equivalent

G1800

3.40-3.70

2.30-2.80

0.50-0.80

0.15

0.25

4.25-4.5

G2500

3.20-3.50

2.00-2.40

0.60-0.90

0.15

0.20

4.0-4.25

G3000

3.10-3.40

1.90-2.30

0.60-0.90

0.15

0.15

3.9-4.15

G3500

3.00-3.30

1.80-2.20

0.60-0.90

0.15

0.12

3.7-3.9

G4000

3.00-3.30

1.80-2.10

0.70-1.00

0.15

0.10

3.7-3.9

Table 1.2 Mechanical properties for design purposes

Grade

Hardness range

Tensile strength, min psi(kgf/mm)

Transverse, strength,
min, lb(kg)

Deflection, min, in, (mm)

G1800

HB 143-187
5.0-4.4 BID

18 000(14)

1720(780)

0.14(3.6)

G2500

HB 170-229
4.6-4.0 BID

25 000(17.5)

2000(910)

0.17(4.3)

G3000

HB 187-241
4.4-3.9 BID

30 000(21)

2200(1000)

0.20(5.1)

G3500

HB 207-255
4.2-3.8 BID

35 000(24.5)

2450(1090)

0.24(6.1)

G4000

HB 217-269
4.1-3.7 BID

40 000(28)

2600(1180)

0.27(6.9)

1.3 Application of gray iron in automotive castings (see Table 1.5)

1.4 The graphite flakes in gray iron give this metal many desirable properties. These include excellent machine ability, high thermal conductivity, vibration dampening properties, and resistance to wear or scuffing. Due to its low freezing temperature for a ferrous alloy, high fluidity, and low shrinkage properties it is more readily cast in complex shapes than other ferrous metals. 

Table 1.5 Typical applications of gray iron for automotive castings 

Grade

General data

G1800

Miscellaneous soft iron castings (as cast or annealed) in which strength is not of primary consideration. Exhaust manifolds may be made of this grade of iron, alloyed or unalloyed. These may be annealed castings for exhaust manifolds in order to avoid growth and cracking due to heat.

G2500

Small cylinder blocks, cylinder heads, air cooled cylinders, pistons, clutch plates, oil pump bodies, transmission cases, gear boxes, clutch housings, and light-duty brake drums.

G3000

Automobile and diesel cylinder blocks, cylinder heads, flywheels, differential carries castings, pistons, medium-duty brake drums, and clutch plates.

G3500

Diesel engine blocks, truck and tractor cylinder blocks and heads, heavy flywheels, tractor transmission cases, and heavy gear boxes.

G4000

Diesel engine castings, liners, cylinders, and pistons.

 

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