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Malleable Cast Iron Hardness Requirements

1. Pearlitic malleable iron castings (ASTM A220 M-88)

Pearlitic malleable iron castings (ASTM A220 M-88) are commonly used in general engineering with the work temperature from ordinary to 400 centigrade.

If the purchase contract requires hardness test, the acceptable hardness range should be stated, and the test spot should be clearly shown in the drawings.

Whenever possible, we should use Brinell hardness test method specified by ASTM E10, and we’d better use the 3000kg force / 10mm ball test condition, if the size or shape is not suitable, we can use the 1500kg force / 10mm ball. In particular cases, Brinell hardness tester is not available, so we can choose the Rockwell hardness test method instead in accordance with the provisions of ASTM E18.

The mechanical properties of pearlitic malleable cast iron of different grades are as follows:

Tensile test requirements

Typical hardness range

Grade

 

Tensile strength

(MPa)

Yield strength

(MPa)

Elongation

(%)

Typical hardness

(HB)

Typical indentation diameter
(mm)

280M10

310M8

310M6

340M5

410M4

480M3

550M2

620M1

400

450

450

480

550

590

650

720

280

310

310

340

410

480

550

620

10

8

6

5

4

3

2

1

149-197

156-197

156-207

179-229

197-241

217-269

241-285

269-321

4.3-4.9

4.3-4.8

4.2-4.8

4.0-4.5

3.9-4.3

3.7-4.1

3.6-3.9

3.4-3.7

2. Ferritic malleable iron castings (ASTM A47M-90)

This kind of Ferritic malleable iron castings (ASTM A47M-90) are commonly used under work conditions from room temperature to 400 centigrade in general engineering.

The tensile test and hardness requirements of typical parts are as follows: 

Tensile test requirements

Typical hardness

Grade

Minimum tensile strength MPa

Minimum yield strength MPa

Elongation 50 mm gauge  minimum,%

Maximum hardness HB

Indentation diameter mm

22010

340

220

10

156

4.8

3. Malleable iron castings for automobiles (ASTM A602-87)

They are used for automotive and the same industrial products with the same grade of ferrite, pearlite, tempered pearlite and tempered martensite. The castings should be heat-treated.

Hardness requirements

Castings should implement the necessary control and inspection procedures to ensure the compliance with the provisions of the hardness range. Hardness readings should be in accordance with ASTM E10, read after removing enough thickness of materials from casting surface, which can ensure the representation of the hardness value. This should be conducted after negotiations between both parties to determine the casting surface or area for hardness inspection.

The mechanical properties of malleable iron castings are as follows: 

grade

Hardness range

Heat treatment

Tensile strength
Lb / in 2
(MPa)

Yield strength residual deformation0.2% lb / in 2 (MPa)

Elongation
2 inches or 50 mm%

Elastic modulus
One million pounds / inch 2
(MPa)

 

≤156HB

≥4.8BID

Annealing

 

50000

(345)

32000

(221)

10

 

25

(172)

M4504

163-217HB

4.7-4.1BID

Air quenching or liquid quenching& tempering

65000

(448)

45000

(310)

4

26

(179)

M5003

187-241 HB

4.4-3.9BID

Air quenching or liquid quenching& tempering

75000

(517)

50000

(345)

3

26

(179)

M5503

187-241HB

4.4-3.9BID

Liquid quenching& tempering

75000

(517)

55000

(379)

3

26

(179)

M7002

229-269HB

4.0-3.7BID

Liquid quenching& tempering

90000

(621)

70000

(483)

2

26

(179)

M8501

269-302HB

3.7-3.5BID

Liquid quenching& tempering

105000

(724)

85000

(586)

1

26

(179)

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