The Glossary of Foundry and Casting
To help metal casting buyers and sellers
to understand more about metal casting and foundry operation terms.
All terms have been arranged in alphabetical order.
Semi-permanent molds of plaster of paris, graphite, or dry sand,
tarred and dried and used for repetitive work in the foundry.
Pig iron that is not of the desired composition. See Pig Iron.
A casting defect caused by any incorrect dimension resulting from
improper setting of cores, using wrong core, shifts, swells, etc.
Core defect caused by improper gagging of dimensions.
Metal whose composition does not correspond to the designated or
Oil And Whiting Test
A method of detecting fine cracks by applying a penetrating oil and
painting the tested metal surface with a mixture of whiting and a
thinner. Oil in the cracks emerges to stain the whiting.
A core bonded with oil.
A mold in which the sand is bonded by an oil binder.
Furnaces fired with oil.
Quenching in oil. See Quenching.
Oil Sand Core
Core in which sand mass is bound by an oil-based binder.
Sand bonded with such oils as linseed and the synthetics.
In die casting, a sponge like whirl on the surface of casting
resulting from an excess of oil applied to the sprue hole before the
shot was made.
Oil-Oxygen Binder (Cold-Setting, Air-Setting Binders)
A synthetic auto-oxidizing liquid, oil-based binder that partially
hardens at room temperature, using an oxygen releasing agent. Baking
is needed to complete the hardening.
(Mg2Fe2SiO4) A naturally occurring mineral composed of fosterite and
fayalite, crushed and used as a molding sand. Usually the sand of
choice in manganese steel casting due to its basicity. See Molding
Magnesium-iron-orthosilicate composed of forsterite and fayalite.
Does not contain free silica. Possible molding material.
A solid pattern, not necessarily made from one piece of material.
The pattern may have one or more loose pieces.
A distribution of a clean sand or a sand with two maximum screens
separated by a minimum screen. These high-expansion problem sands
are also referred to as camel back distributions.
Open Face Mold
See Open Sand Casting.
Open Flame Furnace
As opposed to the crucible furnace; in the open-flame furnace the
metal charge is confined in the refractory lining, with the flame
and products of combustion coming in direct contact with the metal.
Open Grain Structure
A defect wherein a casting, when machined or fractured, appears to
be coarse grained and porous; usually due to a shrink area.
Riser whose top is open to the atmosphere through the top of the
mold. See Riser.
Open Sand Casting
A casting poured into a mold which has no cope or other covering.
A furnace for melting metal, in which the bath is heated by the
combustion of hot gases over the surface of the metal and by
radiation from the roof. The furnace fuel may be producer gas,
coke-oven gas, powdered coal, or oil.
Steel made in open-heart furnace.
A temperature measuring device through which the observer sights the
heated object and compares its incandescence with that of an
electrically heated filament whose brightness can be regulated; or
the intensity of the light admitted from the object may be varied
through filters and compared with a constant light source. See
That moisture content which results in developing the maximum of any
property of a sand mixture.
A pebble-grained surface that develops in the mechanical forming of
sheet metals with coarse grains.
Orange Peel Bucket
A bottom-drop bucket used for charging cupolas; the drop-bottom is
divided into a number of sections that appear to peel back as the
A mineral from which a metallic element may be extracted profitably.
An opening of controlled size used to measure or control the flow of
In a cupola a device used to measure the volume of air delivered to
Oscillating Trough Cooler
A steel trough conveyor within a plenum where reclaimed sand is
cooled prior to reuse.
An obsolete term once used to designate a ferrous microstructure not
so well defined as Troosite.
A sand originating near Ottawa, IL. Also know as St. Peter
A furnace or oven for drying molds or cores.
See Continuous Annealing Furnace.
Aging a precipitation-hardening alloy under conditions of time and
temperature greater than those required to obtain maximum strength
or hardness. See Aging.
Heating refractories to a temperature sufficient to cause pronounced
vitrification, deformation, or bloating.
Overflows (Overflow wells)
Separated cavities cut into the face of die casting dies adjacent to
the main cavity and connected to it by a channel, ensuring filling
Extension of the end surface of the cope half of a core print beyond
that of the drag to provide clearance for closing of the mold. See
The extension on the vertical surface of a core print, providing
clearance for closing the mold over the core, also known as
A term applied when, after exposure to an excessively high
temperature, a metal develops an undesirable coarse grain structure,
but is not necessarily damaged permanently. Unlike burned structure,
the structure produced by overheating can be corrected by suitable
heat treatment, by mechanical work, or by a combination of the two.
Permanently deforming a metal by subjecting it to stresses that
exceed the elastic limit.
Owen Jet Dust Counter
An instrument similar to the Konimeter, using the humidification
Any reaction whereby an element reacts with oxygen.
Reduction in amount of metal or alloy through oxidation. Such losses
usually are the largest factor in melting loss.
A compound of oxygen with another element.
An atmosphere resulting from the combustion of fuels in an
atmosphere where excess oxygen is present, and with no unburned fuel
lost in the products of combustion.
A flame produced with excess oxygen.
Oxygen Bomb Calorimeter
An instrument to measure the heats of combustion of solid and liquid
Oxygen Impingement Process
Pure oxygen is blown down on the bath to refine Pig Iron.
See Lance, Oxygen.
Pack Hardening (Park Carburizing)
See Case Hardening.
Packing Or Packing Material
Sand, gravel, mill scale or similar materials used to support
castings packed in annealing pots, to prevent possible warpage under
high temperatures. See Annealing, Casting, Warpage.
Metal added deliberately to the cross section of a casting wall,
usually extending from a riser, to ensure adequate feeding to a
localized area in which a shrink might occur without the addition.
The process of adding extra material to a cross-section of a casting
wall, usually extending from a riser to ensure adequate feed to a
localized area where sharing would occur if the added material were
not present. It must be machined off of casting.
Panel Spalling Test
A test using a panel of the refractory being tested to provide a
reference to spalling behavior.
An instrument for analyzing sounds and displaying the results either
on an oscilloscope or a graph.
A metal plate attached to a pattern to prevent injury to the pattern
and assist in loosening it from the sand.
A proprietary method of producing a protective phosphate coating on
ferrous metals. Parker A treatment involves immersing in a bath of
acid manganese phosphate. The Parker D is a modification using acid
zinc phosphate with a nitrate iron as accelerator.
Parlanti Casting Process
A proprietary permanent mold process using dies of aluminum with a
controlled rate of heat transfer.
Parsons Duncan Process
A method of casting steel ingots wherein the top layer of the mold
is heated and the last to solidify.
A pattern made in two or more parts.
Partially Graphitized Cast Iron
A blackheart malleable casting only partly graphitized in annealing,
giving a mixture of black and white. Sometimes termed salt and
pepper fracture. See Cast Iron.
In air pollution control, solid or liquid particles, except water,
visible with or without a microscope, that make up the obvious
The joint, dividing line, where mold separates to permit removal of
See Release Agent.
Material dusted or sprayed on a pattern or mold to prevent adherence
A line on a pattern or casting corresponding to the separation
between the cope and drag portions of a sand mold. The joint where
mold separates to permit removal of pattern. See Casting, Cope,
Drag, Mold, Pattern.
A bondless sand dusted on the parting to prevent the parts of the
mold from adhering to each other.
An inhibitor which changes the potential of a metal to a more
The property of some metals to become abnormally inactive towards
Repair of a furnace lining or repair of a mold core.
An original used as a form to produce duplicate pieces. Pattern
dimensions are slightly enlarged to counteract the shrinkage of the
casting as it solidifies and cools in the mold. Although patterns
can be made in one piece, a complicated casting may consist of two
or more parts. The pattern may be made out of wood, plastic, metal,
or other material. See Casting, Mold, Solidification.
Coating material applied to wood patterns to protect them against
moisture and abrasion of molding sand.
The taper allowed on the vertical faces of a pattern to permit easy
withdrawal of pattern from the mold or die.
Full-sized drawing of a pattern showing its arrangement and
Metal or plastic letters or figures in various sizes which are
affixed to patterns for identification purposes.
The shrinkage allowance made on all patterns to compensate for the
change in dimensions as the solidified casting cools in the mold
from freezing temperature to room temperature. Pattern is made
larger by the amount of shrinkage characteristic of the particular
metal in the casting and the amount of resulting contraction to be
encountered. Rules or scales are available for use. See Casting,
Pattern usually made in two parts, sometimes in more than two.
A craftsman engaged in production of foundry patterns from wood,
plastic, or metals, such as aluminum, brass, etc. See Pattern.
The shrinkage allowance made on all patterns to compensate for the
change in dimensions as the solidified casting cools in the mold
from freezing temperature of the metal to room temperature. Pattern
is made larger by the amount of shrinkage characteristic of the
particular metal in the casting and the amount of resulting
contraction to be encountered. Rules or scales are available for
Abbreviation for Pyrometric Cone Equivalent.
A microconstituent of iron and steel consisting of alternative
layers of ferrite and iron carbide or cementite.
Pearlitic Malleable Iron
A malleable iron in which the iron matrix is made higher
strength/lower ductility through heat treatment. See Pearlite.
Free removal of burnt molding sand from casting.
Peening action obtained by impact of metal shot, often used to
improve fatigue properties by putting the surface in compression.
Also the small end of a molder's hammer.
A core projecting to the center of a blind riser allowing
atmospheric pressure to force out feed metal. See Blind Riser.
A strip of metal with stepped thickness variation and with holes at
varying depths; used in radiography to indicate the sensitivity of
Condition where molten metal has penetrated into the sand, resulting
in a mixture of metal and sand adhering to the casting.
Natural magnesia in nodular form, formed by heating.
A highly siliceous volcanic rock which can be expended by heating
into a porous mass of particles. Perlite can be used as an
insulation in foundry sand mixtures. Not to be confused with
A long-life mold into which metal is poured by gravity. It is used
repeatedly to produce many castings from the same mold. It is not an
ingot mold. See Mold.
The property of a mold material to allow passage of gases. The
property in sand molds which permits the passage of gases.
A symbol denoting the negative logarithm of the concentration of the
hydrogen ion in gram-atoms per liter, used in expressing both
acidity and alkalinity; pH=log 1/H per liter. An important factor in
foundry sand control, pH7 is neutral; values less than 7 acid, and
higher than 7, basic. At 25°C, the neutral value is 7. Acidity
increases with decreasing values below 7, and basicity increases
with increasing values above 7.
A constituent which is completely homogeneous, and is both
physically and chemically separated from the rest of the alloy by
definite bounding surfaces; for example, austenite, ferrite,
cementite. Not all constituents are phases; pearlite for example.
See Austenite, Cementite, Pearlite.
(1) A graphic representation of the equilibrium temperature and
composition limits of phase fields reactions in an alloy system. In
a binary system, temperature is usually the ordinate and composition
the abscissa. Ternary and more complex systems require several
two-dimensional diagrams to show the temperature-composition
variables completely. In alloy systems, pressure is usually
considered constant, although it may be treated as an additional
variable. (2) Graphical representation of the equilibrium
temperatures and the composition limits of phase fields and phase
reactions in an alloy system.
Phenolic Resin (One-step)
A resin made by the polymerization of a phenol with an aldehyde;
used a binder for cores and sand molds. See Urea-Formaldehyde Resin.
One of the elements; its chemical symbol is P. Its formula weight is
123.92; specific gravity 1.82, and melting point 44.1°C.
A photograph of the grain structure of a metal as observed when
optically magnified more than 10 diameters. The term micrograph may
The science concerned with the physical and mechanical
characteristics of metals and alloys.
Properties of matter such as density, electrical and thermal
conductivity, expansion, and specific heat. This term should not be
used interchangeably with "mechanical properties."
An etchant for ferrous alloys; 4% picric acid in alcohol.
Blocks of iron to a known metal chemical analysis used for melting,
with suitable additions of scrap, etc., for the production of
ferrous castings. See Ingot.
Pig Iron, Basic
A grade of iron made from the basic open-hearth process of
steelmaking; P, 0.40% maximum for Northern iron, 0.70 to 0.90% for
Southern iron; S 0.05% maximum and Si, 1.50%.
Pig Iron, Chateaugay
Pig iron from Chateaugay (New York State). Ores that very low in
phosphorus, copper-free, and containing appreciable amounts of
Pilot Casting Or Sample Casting
A casting made from a pattern produced in a production die to check
the accuracy of dimensions and quality of castings which will be
made in quantity. See Casting.
Small hole under the surface of a casting. See Casting.
Hardened steel locating pins used on flasks to ensure proper
register of cope and drag molds. See Cope, Drag.
A cavity formed by shrinkage of the metal during solidification of
the last portion of liquid metal, usually occurring in a riser
having feeder metal for the casting. See Cavity, Casting.
Mold in which the lower portions are made in a suitable pit or
excavation in a foundry floor. See Foundry.
Usually coal-tar pitch obtained in manufacture of coke and distilled
off at about 350°F. Used as a binder in large cores and molds.
Melting range is 285°F to 315°F.
A form of wear characterized by the presence of surface cavities,
the formation of which is attributed to processes such as fatigue,
local adhesion, cavitation or corrosion.
A stress condition in linear elastic fracture mechanics (see LEFM)
in which there is zero strain in a direction normal to both the axis
of applied tensile stress and the direction of crack growth. Under
plane strain conditions, the plane of fracture instability is normal
to the axis of the principal tensile stress.
Process used to reduce sulfur and oxygen to very low levels.
Molding method wherein gypsum or plaster of Paris is mixed with
fibrous talc, with or without sand, and with water to form a slurry
that is poured around a pattern. In a short period of time, the mass
air-sets or hardens sufficiently to permit removal of the pattern.
The mold so formed is baked at elevated temperature to remove all
moisture prior to use. One variation is the Antioch process.
Plaster of Paris
A semi-hydrated form of calcium sulfate made by sintering gypsum to
Permanent distortion of a material under the action of applied
Pattern made from any of the several thermosetting-type synthetic
resins such as phenol formaldehyde, epoxy, etc. Small patterns may
be cast solid, but large ones are usually produced by laminating
with glass cloth.
Plates, usually of metal, on which molds are set for pouring.
Plates, Core Drying
Flat plates of metal on which cores are placed for baking.
Powdered graphite. See Printing Back.
Abbreviation for Polymethymethacralate. Foam used in the lost foam
process, does release as much carbon as polystyrene.
Grinders, rammers, drills, etc., operated by compressed air.
A body of sand surrounded on all but one side by molten metal.
A technique for the ultrasonic testing of steel in which a visible
image of the defects present in the steel can be shown on a screen.
A polymer of styrene used in making molding products. In particular,
used in the lost foam process.
Unsoundness in castings appearing as blowholes and shrinkage
Holes in the casting due to gases trapped in the mold, reaction of
molten metal with moisture in the molding sand, or imperfect fusion
of chaplets with molten metal. (Surface porosity may be due to
overheating of the mold or core faces, but should not be confused
with sand inclusions.) See Blow Hole, Blow Holes, Inclusion, Molding
A process used immediately after welding whereby heat is applied to
the weld zone either for tempering or for providing a controlled
rate of cooling, in order to avoid a hard or brittle structure.
Term usually applied to cast iron containers used in melting
aluminum-base alloys; also used to describe steel crucibles for
melting magnesium-base alloys, as well as graphite crucibles. See
Discharge of molten metal from the ladle into the mold.
Casting which lacks completeness due to the cavity not being filled
with molten metal.
Filling the mold with molten metal. Transfering the molten metal
from the furnace to the ladle, ladle to ladle, or ladle into the
molds. See Molds, Ladle.
Reservoir on top of the mold to receive the molten metal.
Pouring Basin, Cup
Located on top of sprue or downgate. That portion of the gating.
The flared section of the top of the downsprue. It can be shaped by
hand in the cope, or be a shaped part of the pattern used to form
the downsprue; or may be baked core cup placed on the top of the
cope over the downsprue. See Baked Core.
Mechanically operated device with a ladle set for controlling the
Ladle used to pour metal into the mold. See Casting, Ladle, Mold.
The task of ladling, or mechanically pouring, of the molten metal
into the molds, forming the casting. See Casting.
Introducing iron powder in an oxygen stream to hasten oxygen torch
cutting by the combination of fluxing and oxidation. Generally used
for cutting stainless steel.
Finely ground, high-volatile coal used for heating furnaces and
annealing ovens in the malleable foundry industry.
A process of hardening an alloy in which a constituent precipitates
from a supersaturated solid solution.
Precipition Heat Treatment
Any of the various aging treatments conducted at elevated
temperatures to improve certain mechanical properties through
precipitation from solid solution. See Heat Treatment.
A general term for heating material, as a die in die casting, as a
preliminary to operation, to reduce thermal shock and prevent
adherence of molten metal.
Pressure Die Casting
A British term. See Die Casting.
A term describing a casting free from porosity of the type that
would permit leaking.
Primary Choke (Choke)
That part of the gating system which most restricts or regulates the
flow of metal into the mold cavity. See Gate.
The first dendritic crystal that form in an alloy during cooling
below the liquid's temperature.
Part of the core used to locate and support-part of a pattern to
form area in mold for same purpose; part of mold and part in core
box for the same purpose. See Core, Mold, Core Box.
After the surface of a mold is dusted with graphite facing, the
pattern is replaced, rapped into position and again removed.
To dust the cavity with Plumbago and reprint pattern. It smoothes
the cavity surface by filling voids. See Plumbago.
The amount of variation in the output of a controlled manufacturing
process, the range defined by plus or minus three standard
In castings, the analysis of the actual part as opposed to the
analysis of the steel from which the casting was poured.
Highly mechanized foundry for manufacturing large quantities of
repetitive castings. See Foundry.
Any welding carried out during manufacturing before final delivery
to the purchaser. This includes joint welding of casting and
The constituent that separates out of a solid solution before the
formation of eutectoid. See Eutectoid.
A system of locating and tolerancing developed to control the
orientation of rough parts in machine fixtures. From locating points
on the casting a "perfect profile" is established for all surfaces
and features. A tolerance envelope surrounding that profile defines
the limitations of an acceptable part.
See Directional Solidification.
A metal, graphite, or ceramic tube which shrouds and protects the
wires of a thermoelectric pyrometer. See Pyrometer.
Abbreviation for pounds per square inch.
A mill for mixing foundry sands and sand mixtures consisting
essential of a shaft fitted with plows or paddle wheel which revolve
in a tub or vat. See Foundry Sand.
A machine used to force the entire sand and casting contents from
the molding box in one motion, without the use of vibration.
Elimination of air and other undesirable gases from furnaces or
Various materials added to molten metals and alloys for the purpose
of removing impurities, gases, etc.
An indentation in the casting surface due to displacement
(expansion) of the sand in the mold.
Chemical metallurgical process dependent upon heat.
An instrument for determining elevated temperatures.
A slender trihedral pyramid made of a mixture of minerals similar in
composition to that of a clay or other refractory being tested. Each
cone is assigned a number indicating its fusion temperature.
Pyrometric Cone Equivalent (PCE)
An index of refractoriness obtained by heating on a time-temperature
schedule a cone of the sample material and a series of standardized
pyrometric cones of increasing refractoriness.
A method of measuring temperature with any type of temperature
indicating instruments. See Pyrometer.
A form of silica occurring in hexagonal crystals which are commonly
colorless and transparent, but sometimes also yellow, brown, purple,
green, etc. It is the most common of all solid minerals. See Silica.
A compact granular rock composed of quartz. It is a metamorphosed
sandstone, and siliceous cement is often so blended with the quartz
grains as to give the rock a nearly homogeneous texture. Primary
materiel in silica brick.
A crack resulting from thermal stress induced during rapid cooling
or quenching, or from stresses induced by delayed transformations
some time after the article has been fully quenched.
The quench severity is characterized by the H value and relates to
the rate of temperature change during quenching.
Rapid cooling of hardening; normally achieved by immersion of the
object to be hardened in water, oil, or solutions of salt or organic
compounds in water.
Heat communicated by radiation and transmitted by electromagnetic
Any part of an installation accessible to employees in which there
exists a radiation level of 7.5 millirem in any one hour over 150
millirem in any seven consecutive days.
Any situation where persons might be exposed to radiation in excess
of the maximum permissible dose.
All radiation coming from within an x-ray tube and tube housing
except the useful beam.
Varieties of an element possessing the same chemical characteristics
but emitting detectable radiation's by means of which they can be
identified and traced.
Any compound or element which may emit any or all of the following:
alpha and beta particles, electrons, photons neutrons and gamma and
all other emissions which produce ionization directly or indirectly.
Examination of the soundness of a casting by study of radiographs
taken in various areas or of the whole casting.
Use of x-or gamma rays in studying the internal structure of objects
to determine their homogeneity.
A radioactive element which the chemical symbol Ra; radium and its
salts are used in gamma-ray radiography because of their
radioactivity. Radium's melting point is 700°C (1,292°F).
Process of packing sand in a mold using a hand, pneumatic or
mechanized ramming device.
Tool for ramming the sand. See Ramming.
Packing sand in a mold by raising and dropping the sand, pattern,
flask on a table. Jolt squeezers, jarring machines, and jolt rammers
are machines using this principle.
The process of packing the sand in the mold or core box with a rod
See Core, Ram-Up.
The difference between the highest and lowest values of a measurable
attribute of the output of a process.
Loosening the pattern from the mold by jarring or knocking.
A pointed bar or rod made of steel or other metal, which is inserted
vertically into a hole in a pattern, or driven into it, then struck
with a hammer on alternate sides to cause vibration and loosening of
the pattern from the sand.
Metal plate attached to a pattern to permit rapping for removal from
Rare Earth (RE)
Any of a group of 15 similar metals with atomic numbers 57 to 71.
Also rare earth element, rare earth metal, lanthanide series,
uncommon metals, Mischmetal.
These include helium, argon, neon, krypton, xenon and radon.
An expansion discontinuity in a sand casting, featured as a long,
narrow, linear depression, resulting from sand expansion and minor
buckling of the mold surface during filling of the mold.
Term usually employed in reference to adding new bonding material to
used molding sand so that it can be used again to produce molds.
A ladle placed in front of the cupola into which all metal is
tapped. It acts as a mixer and reservoir and to smooth out metal
flow to the pouring area. See Cupola, Ladle.
Reversing a pattern upon a face plate to permit turning the opposite
face to the required shape.
Ratio of the number of parts scrapped to the total number of parts
manufactured, expressed as a percentage.
A process whereby the distorted grain structure of cold-worked
metals is replaced by a new, strain-free grain structure during
annealing above a specific minimum temperature.
The lowest temperature at which the distorted grain structure of a
cold-worked metal is replaced by a new, strain-free grain structure
during prolonged annealing. Time, purity of the metal, and prior
deformation are important factors.
Flame burning with insufficient oxygen to provide complete
combustion, resulting in the presence of carbon in the flame.
The removal of oxygen or addition of hydrogen.
An instrument for the ultrasonic testing of metals.
Heat-resistant material, usually non-metallic, used for furnace
linings etc. The quality of resisting heat. Material usually made of
ceramics, which is resistant to high temperatures, molten metal, and
A clay which fuses at pce 25 (1590°C, 2894°F) or higher.
A statistical method of determining, or predicting, the value of a
dependent variable, based on levels of one or more know independent
Ratio of the number of parts scrapped to the total number of parts
manufactured, expressed as a percentage.
Release Agent (Parting Agent)
A material, e.g. silicone, stearate, oil, or wax for lubricating a
die pattern or core box to facilitate easy removal of a casting,
mold or core.
The term usually refers to a second sprue at opposite end of the
runner to relieve pressure created during pouring operation.
The remaining flux density after the magnetizing force has been
Any welding carried out after delivery to the end user, i.e., after
the casting has been in service.
Replicast Process (CS)
A ceramic shell process similar to the investment casting process.
Uses a pattern made from expanded polystyrene (EPS) and is
surrounded by a thin ceramic shell.
Any element remaining in any alloy following melting and casting
which was not added to meet an analytical specification limit.
See Stress, Residual.
Any of the thermosetting types of resins used as binders for
producing cores and shell molds, such as phenol and urea
formaldehydes, melamines, furans (fufuryls and furfuryl alcohol),
Molding or core sand in which the binder is resin applied to the
sand as a coating by either cold or hot coating. See Binder, Core
Sand, Molding Sand.
Resolved Shear Stress
Stress operating on a crystallographic slip system.
A filtering device which covers the nose and mouth and prevents
inhalation of dust or fumes; should have the U.S. Bureau of Mines
certificate or approval for the specific contaminant being filtered
out. Handkerchiefs and gauze masks give little or no protection.
Metal in the form of gates, sprues, risers or defective castings
which are put back into the melting cycle. See Casting, Gate, Riser,
Melting unit with a roof arranged to deflect the flame and heat
toward the hearth on which the metal to be melted rests.
Recycled sprues, gates, risers, defective castings and machine
chips.See Casting, Gate, Riser, Sprue.
Used in hydraulics and in casting gating theory. A dimensionless
value (dynamic viscosity / density) describing the fairly sudden
shift of flow from laminar to turbulent. Re > 2000 represents
turbulent flow. Laminar flow is seldom experienced in runner and
Also called flow casting. A metal forming process in which a
semi-solid metal is used to make the casting. The solid metal is
heated to a partly liquid, softened state and then pressed into the
final form. The finished part has closer tolerances, better surface
finish, higher strength, and lighter weight than a similar part made
with traditional casting techniques.
Hand- or power-operated device for removing large particles of sand
or foreign material from foundry sand.
Gates, risers, loose pieces, etc., needed on the pattern to produce
a sound casting. See Casting, Gate, Riser, Loose Pieces, Pattern.
A low-carbon steel.
In air pollution control, a black and white mesh scale reading from
all clear to solid black, used to measure the density of smoke.
Observer normally uses chart comparator 50 feet from the point where
A reservoir of molten metal that the casting can draw from to offset
the shrinkage that is taking place as the metal solidifies. See
The connecting passage between a riser and a casting. See Casting,
The length of the riser neck. The term is applied to side risers
only. See Riser Neck.
Gating system in which molten metal from the sprue enters a riser
close to the mold cavity and then flows into the mold cavity. See
The distance from the top of the riser when liquid to the top of the
riser neck. Riser height when sold is usually several inches less
than when liquid because of contraction and loss of feed metal to
The connecting passage between the riser and casting. Usually only
the height and width or diameter of the riser neck are reported,
although the shape can be equally important.
Riser Pad (Riser Contact)
An enlargement of the riser neck where it joins the casting. The
purpose of the pad is to prevent the riser from breaking into the
casting when it is struck or cut from the casting.
A riser that does not break through the top of the cope and is
entirely surrounded by sand; opened to the atmosphere by means of a
Conventional form of riser usually located at the heaviest section
of the casting and extending through the entire height of the cope.
Riser, Side (Side Head)
A riser attached to the side of a casting.
Riser, Top (Top head)
A riser attached to the top surface of a casting.
Practice of running metal for the casting through the riser to help
Rockwell Hardness Testing
Method of determining the indentation hardness by measuring the
depth of residual penetration by a steel ball or a diamond cone. See
Reinforcing the sand in a core with metal rods or shapes to
strengthen parts of the core.
Operation of turning flask over to reverse its position. Positioning
the mold so that the pattern faces upward in order to be removed.
See Core, Cope, Flask.
A wood or metal plate on which the pattern is laid top face downward
for ramming the drag half mold, the plate and half mold being turned
over together before the joint is made. See Pattern.
A molding machine with which the flask is rolled over before the
pattern is drawn from the mold.
Trapezoidal shaped piece that runs horizontally to the mold cavity
and connects the Sprue base to the gate(s). See Gate, Sprue.
System into which molten metal is introduced.
In a mold, part of a runner which extends beyond the farthest ingate
as a blind end. It acts as a dirt trap and is sometimes vented. See
A conventional runner, usually in the horizontal plane, which
permits flow of molten metal to the in gate and is large enough to
act as a reservoir to feed the casting.
Runner System (Gating)
The set of channels in a mould through which molten metal is poured
to fill the mold cavity. The system normally consists of a vertical
section (downgate or sprue) to the point where it joins the mold
cavity (gate) and leading from the mould cavity further vertical
channels (risers or feeders). See Riser, Feeder, Mold Cavity.
Metal flowing through a defect in the mold.
A set of materials specification issued by the Society of Automotive
A decrease in metal section in casting due to sagging of the cope or
core. See Core, Cope.
A heating device, usually of drum shape, in which fuel is burned in
the open air by natural draft. Iron material which has collected in
the bottom of a blast furnace during a blow. See Blast Furnace,
A bath of molten salts used for heating steels, for hardening or
In metalcasting, a loose, granular material high in SiO2, resulting
from the disintegration of rock. The name sand refers to the size of
grain and not to mineral composition. Diameter of the individual
grains can vary from approximately 6 to 270 mesh. Most foundry sands
are made up principally of the mineral quartz (silica). Reason for
this is that sand is plentiful, refractory, and cheap; miscellaneous
sands include zircon, olivine, chromite, CaCO3, black sand (lava
grains), titanium minerals and others.
Sand driven by a blast of compressed air (or steam). It is used to
clean castings, to cut, polish, or decorate glass or other hard
substances, and also to clean building fronts, etc.
Metal castings produced in sand molds. See Casting.
Preparation of used molding sand for reuse, which includes additions
of bond, additives, moisture, etc.
Procedure whereby various properties of foundry sand, such as
fineness, permeability, green strength, moisture content, etc., are
adjusted to obtain castings free from blows, scabs, veins, and
similar defects. See Foundry Sand.
Sand Control Equipment
Testing instruments such as moisture determinators, permeability
air-flow apparatus, etc., for determining the various physical
properties of sands.
Apparatus for removing moisture from sand.
Cavities of irregular shape and size whose inner surfaces plainly
show the imprint of granular material.
Cavities or surface imperfections on a casting caused by sand
washing into the mold cavity. See Mold Cavity.
Process in which moist sand is compressed into a hollow form. Molten
metal is then poured into the form to fill the cavity. When the
metal has solidified, the sand is broken away by vibration leaving
the metal casting.
A machine for mixing sand by kneading and squeezing. See Muller.
A method of evenly distributing the bond around the sand grain by a
A bladed device used to divert sand from a belt conveyor into a sand
Volume of the pore spaces or folds in a sand. (Not synonymous with
Equipment for removing extraneous material from used sand and
reconditioning it for further use.
Processing of used foundry sand grains by thermal, attraction or
hydraulic methods so that it may be used in place of new sand
without substantially changing current foundry sand practice. See
Molding machine which throws sand into a flask or corebox, by
centrifugal action. See Flask, Core Box.
Dampening and cutting over or otherwise mixing sand to produce
uniform distribution of moisture, and allowing time for migration of
Indication of molding sand workability, particularly with reference
to ramability, because the tougher the sand, the harder it is to ram
tightly against the pattern. It is usually given as a number
obtained by multiplying deformation by green compressive strength
times 1000. See Molding Sand.
Temporary independent wall separated from a slag pocket wall;
facilitates slag removal and protects permanent wall.
Sand in a mold back of the facing.
Sand from a bank or pit.
Sand used in an abrasive blasting machine for cleaning castings.
Sand used in making cores.
Prepared sand used next to the pattern.
Sand used in floor molding.
Sand prepared on foundry floor.
Sharp sand from vicinity of lakes.
Sand used to make molds.
Naturally bonded sand as distinguished from that which is formed
synthetically. See Naturally Bonded.
Sand through which gases can pass freely.
Sand composed of almost pure silica.
Molding sand prepared by adding clay or other bond to the sand which
is practically free of those materials. See Natural Sand.
A blemish on a casting caused by eruption of gas from the mold face.
Surface oxidation, partially adherent layers of corrosion products,
left on metals by heating or casting in air or in other oxidizing
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
An instrument used for obtaining microstructure images using an
electron beam. The micrographs obtained give depth perception of the
metal being observed.
Cutting off surface projections such as gates and risers from
casting by means of gas torch.
Any scrap metal melted, usually with suitable additions, to produce
Metal to be remelted; includes scrapped machinery fabricated items
such as rail or structural steel and rejected castings (metal to be
re-melted, castings that have to be re-melted).
A sieve or riddle with openings of definite size used to separate
one gain size from another or to remove lumps from sand.
Screen Analysis (Sieve Analysis)
Distribution of particle size sand expressed in terms of the
percentage of weight retained on each of a series of standard
screens decreasing in mesh size and the percentage passed by the
screen of finest mesh.
See Wet Scrubbers.
Term applied to finely ground bituminous coal which is mixed with
sands for foundry uses.
Any radioactive material that is encased in and is to be used in a
container in a manner intended to prevent leakage of the radioactive
A surface defect on a casting related to but of lesser degree than a
Cold Shut; a ridge on the surface of a casting caused by a crack in
the mold face. See Cold Shut.
A concentration of alloying elements at specific regions, usually as
a result of the primary crystallization of one phase with the
subsequent concentration of other elements in the remaining liquid.
A metalloid melting 220°C (428°F) added to stainless steel to
A mechanical unit which separates or grades ground materials into
constituent parts, used in the foundry to remove fines from the
system sand and dust from the air.
Term used in Britain and continental Europe for ductile or nodular
iron. SG means spherulitic or spheroidal graphite.
The process of separating the solidified casting from the mold
material. The stage in the casting process where the sand from the
mold is cleaned off of the newly formed castings through vigorous
vibration. See Casting, Molds, Vibrator.
Equipment for mechanical removal of castings from molds.
The handle attached to a small ladle. See Ladle.
Sand free from binders, i.e., new, clean sand of angular shape. The
term does not refer to grain shape. See Binder.
Shaw (Osborn-Shaw) Process
A precision casting technique in ceramic molds which do not require
wax or plastic investment. See Lost Wax Process, Investment Casting.
A type of deformation in which parallel planes in the metal crystals
slide so as to retain their parallel relation.
Shear Modulus (G)
In a torsion test, the ratio of the unit shear stress to the
displacement caused by it per unit length in the elastic range.
Units are Pa or psi.
Elastic displacement produced by pure shear loading.
Maximum shear stress a material is capable of withstanding without
Load per unit area parallel to the plane of contact.
A process for forming a mold from resin-bonded sand mixtures brought
in contact with pre-heated (300°F - 500°F) metal patterns, resulting
in a firm shell with a cavity corresponding to the outline of the
pattern. See Cavity, Pattern.
Process in which clay-free silica sand coated with a thermosetting
resin or mixed with resin is placed on a heated metal pattern for a
short period of time to form a partially hardened shell. The bulk of
the sand mixture inside the resulting shell is removed for further
use. The pattern and shell are then heated further to harden or
polymerize the resin-sand mix, and the shell is removed from the
pattern. Frequently, shell cores are made using the Hot Box process.
See Hot Box Process.
Tolerances which are non-symmetrically distributed about the design
A casting defect resulting form a mismatch of cope and drag.
Sometimes there is a Core Shift, which also produces defective
casting. See Core Shift.
Brittleness in a metal at an elevated temperature.
Metallic abrasive commonly used for cleaning casting surfaces. In
die-casting, it is the phase of the die-casting cycle when molten
metal is forced into the die.
Shotblasting (Shot peening)
Casting cleaning process employing a metal abrasive (grit or shot)
propelled by centrifugal or air force.
The difference in volume between liquid metal and solid metal or the
void (shrink hole) left in a casting because of it.
A cavity in a casting due to insufficient feed metal. See Cavity.
Patternmaker's rule graded to allow for metal contraction.
Difference in volume between liquid metal and solid metal in a given
cavity. Contraction of metal in the mould during solidification. The
term is also used to describe the casting defect, i.e. shrinkage
cavity. This results from poor design, insufficient metal feed, or
Cracks that form in metal as result of the pulling apart of grains
by contraction before complete solidification. See Solidification.
Shrinkage occurring in the center of casting sections, particularly
with platelike or barlike contours, which solidify simultaneously
from two faces and cut off feeding in the central portion.
A linear scale or ruler, typically in inches or millimeters which
has been lengthened by the percentage of linear shrinkage by which
liquid metal contracts during solidification and cooling. See
A device with meshes of wire or other material for separating fine
material from coarse material.
See Screen Analysis.
Silicon dioxide, SiO2, occurring in nature as quartz, opal, etc.
Molding and core sands are impure silica. The prime ingredient of
sand and acid refractories.
Refractory material of ganister, bonded with hydrated lime, and
fired at high temperature.
Silica in finely divided form.
A colloidal form of silica used as a drying agent.
Sand with a minimum silica content of 95% used for forming casting
Silica flour mixed with water and other materials to form a
brushable or sprayable facing material.
An abundant element, chemically classed as a nonmetal,
metallurgically a metal, used extensively in ferrous and nonferrous
alloys; melting point 1423ƒC (2593.4ƒF).
A series of alloys containing 0.5-6% silicon, 1-19% zinc and a
substantial amount of copper. See Alloy.
A series of alloys containing 1-5% silicon, 0.5-3% iron, under 5%
zinc, under 1.5% manganese, and the remainder being substantially
Silicon Carbide Briquets
Silicon carbide in briquet form used as an inoculant and deoxidizer
in cupola-melted gray iron.
An alloy of 50% silicon and 50% aluminum used for making silicon
additions to aluminum alloys; also called an intermediate or
hardener alloy. Melting point is 1070ƒF. See Alloy.
An alloy of silicon and copper, used as a deoxidizer and hardener in
copper-base alloys, which is available in tow types containing 10
and 20% silicon.
A type of pig iron containing 8-14% silicon, 1.50% carbon max.,
0.06% sulfur max., and 0.15% phosphorus max. See Pig Iron.
Refers to the process where user/designer and producer interact to
reduce lead time and improve the efficiency of a part. This process
is faster and more efficient than the traditional sequential process
of design and manufacture.
The bonding of adjacent surfaces of particles of a mass of powder or
a compact by heating to a suitable temperature and cooling.
That temperature at which the molding material begins to adhere to
the casting, or in a test when the sand coheres to a platinum ribbon
under controlled conditions. Also, the temperature at which sand
grains begin to adhere to one another.
A primary coating of glue applied to the end grain of wood to seal
A framework representing both the exterior and interior of the shape
of the casting.
Small upward bulge in the grating system, near the casting cavity,
which functions as a dirt trap.
Skim Core (Skimmer)
A flat core or tile placed in a mold to skim a flowing stream of
metal. Commonly used in pouring basins, it hold back slag and dirt
while clean metal passes underneath to the downsprue.
A gating arrangement which changes the direction of flow of molten
metal and prevents the passage of slag and other undesirable
materials into the mold cavity. See Mold Cavity, Slag.
A device or tool for removing slag and dross from the surface of
molten metal. See Dross, Slag.
Removing or hold back dirt or slag from the surface of the molten
metal before or during pouring.
A thin surface layer different chemically or structurally from the
main mass of a metal object. The surface of a mold or casting. See
Drying the surface of the mold by direct application of heat.
A plain flat core.
A fused nonmetallic material used to protect molten metal from the
air and to extract certain impurities. The nonmetallic covering on
molten metal resulting from the combination of impurities in the
initial charge like ash from fuel, and any silica and clay eroded
from the refactory lining. It is skimmed off prior to pouring the
Casting surface imperfections similar to sand inclusions, but
containing impurities from the charge materials, silica and clay
eroded from the refractory lining, ash from the fuel during the
melting process. May also originate from metal-refractory reactions
occurring in the ladle during pouring of the casting. See
An enlargement, dam or protrusion in the gating or runner system in
a mold for the purpose of preventing molten slag particles from
entering the mold cavity. See Dirt Trap.
Smoothing the surface of molds.
In ceramics, a pouring slip, a water suspension of finely ground
clay, into a plaster of Paris mold. After it hardens it is dried and
A flow able mixture of refractory particles suspended in a liquid.
Thin watery mixture such as the gypsum mixture for plaster molding,
the molding medium used for investment casting, core dips, and mold
washes. See Dip Coat.
Casting made by pouring an alloy into a metal mold, allowing it to
remain sufficiently long to form a think solid shell, and then
pouring out the remaining liquid metal. See Alloy, Casting.
An individual or firm which wins metals from cores, or which melts,
treats or refines scrap metals and alloys for further use.
A metallurgical thermal process in which a metal is separated in
fused form from nonmetallic materials or other undesired metals with
which it is associated.
A type of emission resulting from incomplete combustion and
consisting predominantly of small gas borne particles of combustible
material present in sufficient quantity to be observable
independently of the presence of other solids in the gas stream.
Removal of fins and rough places on a casting by means of grinding.
See Casting, Fins, Grinding.
A flask that has hinges and latches so that it may be removed from
the mold prior to the pouring.
Prolonged heating of a metal, furnace or ladle at a selected
Sodium Silicate (CO2 Process)
Molding sand is mixed with sodium silicate and the mould is gassed
with carbon dioxide gas to produce a hard mold or core. See Water
A process used to soften metals through annealing or tempering. See
That material which has a tendency to resist any attempt to change
its size or shape.
Joining metals by fusion of alloys that have relatively low melting
points- most commonly, lead-based or tin-based alloys, which are the
soft solders. Hard solders are alloys that have sliver, copper, or
nickel bases, and use of these alloys with melting points higher
than 800°F (426.7°C) is generally termed brazing. The sticking or
adhering of molten metal to portions of a die.
Wooden pegs used to reinforce a body of sand or hold it in place.
Shrinkage or contraction as a metal cools from the solidifying
temperature to room temperature.
A single solid homogeneous crystalline phase containing two or more
Process of metal (or alloy) changing from the liquid to the solid
Only pure metals solidify or freeze at one definite temperature.
Alloys contain different constituents which solidify at different
temperatures, and the various temperatures from that of the first
constituent to solidify to that of the last to constituent to freeze
is called the solidification range. See Solidification.
The decrease in size accompanying the freezing of a molten metal.
Shrinkage or contraction as metal solidifies. See Shrinkage.
Temperature at which freezing is completed. Below that temperature
all metals are completely solid.
Using sound waves above audible frequency via a supersonic
reflectoscope to measure time sound waves take returning from
opposite sides of casting. Defects return the waves in more or less
time. See Defects.
Tempered martensite that has a micro-structure of distinctly
granular appearance. Further tempering causes the appearance of
clearly resolvable carbide particles (spheroidite).
Buckling or flaking off of the surface material.
After solution heat treating, a mode of quenching in which a spray
of water is directed upon material just removed from the furnace.
A numerical value representing the weight of a given substance as
compared with the weight of an equal volume of water at 39°F
(3.9°C), for which the specific gravity is taken as 1,000 kg/m3. See
Equivalent to thermal capacity, or the quantity of heat required to
produce a unit change in the temperature of a unit mass.
Volume of one gram of a substance at a specific temperature, usually
Optical instrument for determining the concentration of metallic
constituents in a metal (or alloy) by the intensity of specific
wavelengths generated when the metal or alloy is thermally or
Process for determining the concentration of metallic constituents
in a metal or alloy by the intensity of specific wavelengths
generated when the metal or alloy is thermally or electrically
A cementite aggregate of globular carbide and ferrite.
Spheroidized Vementite (Divorced Pearlite)
The globular condition of iron carbide after a spheroidizing
Alloy of iron and manganese used in basic and acid open hearth
steelmaking practice A high manganese pig iron containing 15-30%
manganese and used in bessemer and open-hearth steel production. See
A method of interpreting the fluidity of an alloy by pouring molten
metal into a mold with a long narrow channel. The length of such
casting, under standardized conditions, is taken as the fluidity
index of that alloy.
A core of tile placed in a mold to prevent erosion of the mold at
places where metal impinges with more than normal force. Splash
cores are commonly used at the bottom of large rammed pouring
basins, at the bottom of long downsprues, or at the ingates of large
A pattern that is parted for convenience in molding.
A casting in which the metal is porous and dendritic.
A trough through which the metal flows from the furnace to the
A vertical passageway that takes the molten metal from the pouring
basin to the runner. See Runners.
Sprue (Downsprue Downgate)
(1) The channel, usually vertical, which the molten metal enters:
so-called because it conducts metal down into the mold. (2) The
vertical channel connecting the pouring basin with the runner system
and terminates in the sprue well at the bottom. See Runners.
Sprue Base (or well)
Rectangular or cylindrical block that receives metal from the Sprue,
reduces the velocity of the falling stream of metal and provides the
transition from the vertical to the horizontal and send the metal
into the runner system. See Runners.
A print attached to the top or squeeze board of a mold to make an
impression in the cope indicating where the sprue should be cut. See
A metal tool used in cutting the pouring aperture, the sprue hole.
The opening through which the metal is poured into the cope to run
into the casting cavity. See Cope.
In die-casting, a tapered pin with a rounded end projecting into a
sprue hole, acting as a core that deflects the metal and aids in
removal of the sprue from the die-casting. See Core, Sprue Hole.
A tapered metal or wood pin used to form the sprue opening in a
mold. Also a metal or other stopper used in pouring basin to prevent
molten metal from flowing into the sprue until a certain level has
been reached. It prevents entry of dirt and dross. See Dross.
Removing gates and risers from castings after the metal has
A board used on the cope half of the mold to permit squeezing of the
In certain type of molding machines, a stationary or movable plate
against which a filled mold is compressed, in order to complete the
compacting of the sand.
The pressure applied by a molding machine to press the flask and
contained sand against the fixed squeeze head or board on a molding
A power-operated, usually pneumatic, device used to pack sand into a
flask. See Flask.
Molding method in which the half-mold forms the cope and drag. They
are placed one on top of the other and poured through a common
sprue. Cavities on the bottom side of one half-mold rest on the flat
side of the half-mold beneath. When the cavities are in both sides
of the half-molds, the method is called multiple molding. See
A wide range of steels containing chromium or chromium and nickel,
exhibiting high resistance to corrosion.
A statistical quantity used to describe the variation of a
measurable attribute about some average value.
A pattern of high-grade material and workmanship in daily use or at
frequent intervals. A pattern used as a master to make or check
A sample of know composition used to calibrate an instrument or
method of analysis.
Refractory units stocked by manufacturers or made from stock molds.
Attaching staves to polygonshaped heads in the building of
cylindrical bodies; also, standard method used in making
semicircular core boxes.
An alloy of iron and carbon, containing no more than 1.74% carbon.
It must be malleable at some temperature while in the as-cast state.
Common designation for the standard grades of steel approved by the
Society of Automotive Engineers.
In patternmaking, the courses of material that when fastened
together resemble steps. See Pattern.
Proprietary name of a group of complex alloys retaining their
hardness strength and resistance to oxidation at high temperatures;
contains W, Co, Cr and C.
A vertical sprue containing a number of side branches or entries at
different levels into the casting cavity. See Cavity, Gates, Sprue.
Stereolithography Apparatus (SLA)
Equipment used for computerized building of three-dimensional models
and patterns. Enables the data representation of a CAD solid model
to be directly converted into a plastic model of a casting.
A lump on the surface of a casting caused by a portion of the mold
face sticking to the pattern. Also, a forming tool used in molding.
Material added to a part to allow for surface preparation or precise
dimensioning by machining.
Standard cores of common diameters which are kept "in stock" for
general use. See Cores.
Device used on molding machine to hold pattern plate or refractory
block used to support a crucible in a crucible furnace. See
Crucible, Crucible Furnace.
Plate on a mold machine on which stools are mounted.
Supporting green sand cores in machine molding while pattern is
being withdrawn. See Green Sand, Core.
To shorten or change a mold.
Stop Off Strip
Reinforcing members on frail patterns. Impressions later filled with
A refractory shape at the end of a stopper rod, usually clay and
graphite, seated in a ladle's nozzle.
A device in a bottom-pour ladle for controlling the flow of metal
through the nozzle into the casting. The stopper rod consists of a
steel rod, protecting sleeves, and a graphite stopper head. It may
also be a single piece manufactured from graphite.
Closing off a part of the mold that is not wanted to be cast.
A phrase used to describe the result when molten metal is poured
into the mold at too fast a rate or under too great metallstatic
pressure, causing the cope to rise slightly from the drag and
resulting in an oversize casting. See Casting, Cope, Drag, Mold.
A perforated core placed at the bottom of a sprue or in other
locations in the grating system to control the flow of the molten
metal. To some extent, it prevents coarse particles of slag and
dross from entering the mold cavity. See Core Strainer.
Strains produced by internal stresses, resulting from unequal
contraction of the metal as the casting cools.
Steady flow of liquid without turbulence. Generally, not experienced
in metal casting.
Compressive, shear, tensile, or transverse strength of a molded sand
mixture when baked at a temperature above 230°F (110°C) and then
cooled to room temperature.
See Compressive Strength.
See Impact Strength.
Compressive, shear, tensile, or transverse strength attained by a
sand mixture after being subjected to a cycle or cycles of heating
and cooling which approximate foundry practice.
See Shear Strength.
See Tensile Strength
See Yield Strength.
Factors such as sharp changes in contour or surface defects which
concentrate stresses locally. See Defects.
A heat treatment to reduce residual stresses followed by
sufficiently slow cooling to minimize development of new residual
stresses. See Heat Treatment.
Those stresses setup up in a metal as a result of nonuniform plastic
deformation or the unequal cooling of a casting.
Spontaneous failure of metals by cracking under combined conditions
of corrosion and stress, either residual or applied.
Strike Off (noun)
A straight edge, or metal bar, to cut the sand level with the top of
the drag or cope flask. See Cope, Drag, Flask.
Strike Off (verb)
Operation of removing excess sand from top of core box or flask. See
Core Box, Flask.
On certain molding machines, a series of pins (usually four in
number) which support the rammed flask-half at the parting surface
so that the mounted pattern may be drawn by lowering.
Removing the pattern from the mold or core from core box. See Core,
Core Box, Mold, Pattern.
A device for removing the pattern from a mold or a core from the
A plate, formed to the contour of the pattern, which holds the sand
in place while the pattern is drawn through the plate.
In oil-oxygen and nobake mixture, the moment when the core box may
be satisfactorily drawn from the core, or pattern from the sand.
Structure (Cast Structure)
The size and disposition of the constituents of a metal as cast.
Expendable pattern of foamed plastic, especially polystyrene, use in
manufacturing casting by the Full Mold process.
Blowholes at or near the surface of solidified metal, covered with a
thin layer of metal. May also be called pinhole porosity.
Refrigeration of steel to promote transformation of retained
A nonmetallic chemical element, with a melting point of 444°C
(831.2°F) occurring as an undesirable tramp (trace) element in most
A macrographic method of examining for the distribution of sulfide
impurities, in which a sheet of wet acidified bromide paper is
placed on the polished surface to be examined.
An alloy developed for very high temperature use where relatively
high stresses are encountered and where oxidation resistance is
needed. See Alloy.
Lowering the temperature of a molten metal below its liquidus during
cooling. See Liquidus.
Superduty Fireclay Brick
Having pce above 33 with less than 1.0 percent linear shrink in the
1599°C (2910°F) reheat test, and less than 4.0 percent loss in panel
spalling test preheated at 1649°C (3000°F).
Any increment of temperature above the melting point of a metal;
sometimes construed to be any increment of temperature above normal
casting temperatures introduced for the purpose of refining,
alloying or improving fluidity.
Theoretically, the temperature above the liquidus. In practice, it
usually means temperature above the usual pouring range. See
Metastable solution in which the dissolved material exceeds the
amount the solvent can hold in normal equilibrium at the temperature
and under the other conditions that prevail.
An instrument for sending, receiving, and measuring sound waves over
20,000 cycles per second.
An electromagnetic flaw detection ink for the rapid detection of
subcutaneous and surface flaws in ferrous metals.
Condition or appearance of the surface of a casting.
Conferring a superficial hardness to a steel while maintaining a
relatively soft core. See Hardening.
Surface Protection Air Liquide (SPAL)
The use of liquid argon, liquid nitrogen, or carbon dioxide snow to
minimize the reaction of air and molten metal that normally occurs
in an induction furnace. The liquid or snow is fed onto the surface
of the molten metal where it vaporizes, displacing the air thus
reducing slag and oxygen levels.
The roughness, waviness, lay or other characteristics of the surface
of a part.
Depositing a filer metal on a metal surface by any method to obtain
certain desired properties or dimensions.
To form a mold or core by scraping the sand with a form sweep having
the desired profile. See See Core, Mold.
Sweep or Skree (noun)
A board shaped to a required profile. It is used to remove excess
material from a mold or core. See Core, Mold.
Forming molds or cores by the use of jigs or templates instead of
patterns. See Core, Jigs, Mold, Patterns.
A casting defect consisting of an increase in metal section due to
the displacement of sand by metal pressure. See Defect.
Swing Frame Grinder
A device for grinding large castings where the work remains
stationary. This grinder, too large to be hand lifted, is usually
suspended from a hoist.
Synthetic Molding Sand
Any sand compounded from selected individual materials which, when
mixed together, produce a mixture of the proper physical and
mechanical properties from which to make foundry molds. See Molding
Sand, Natural Sand.
Synthetic mixture of silica sand and exact proportions of binders
and additives instead of using natural sands. See Natural Sand.
Foundry sand used in making molds and which eventually becomes the
bulk of the sand used in the mechanical system or mechanized unit.
To withdraw a molten charge from the melting unit.
Opening in a furnace through which molten metal is tapped into the
forehearth or ladle. See Ladle.
Ladle with external spout wherein the molten metal is poured from
the bottom rather than from the top. See Ladle.
Same meaning as hot crack, but developing before the casting has
solidified completely. See Hot Crack.
Defect caused by backdraft, damaged pattern or uneven drawing of
pattern. See Defect.
Any distinguishing mark, projection, groove, etc. on a pattern, core
box, mold or core which acts as a guide mark for assembling matching
parts. See Core, Core Box, Mold.
Reheating hardened, normalized or mechanically worked steel to a
temperature below the critical range to soften it and improve impact
strength. The moisture content of a sand at which any certain
physical test value is obtained, i.e., temper with respect to green
compressive strength, permeability, retained compressive strength,
etc. To mix material with enough liquid to develop desired molding
Brittleness that results when certain steels are held within or
cooled slowly through a certain range of temperature below the
transformation range. The brittleness is revealed by notched-bar
impact tests at room temperature or lower temperatures.
Carbon in nodular form, characteristic of malleable iron.
Quenching in water from the tempering temperature to improve fatigue
Degree of warmth or coldness in relation to an arbitrary zero
measured on one or more of accepted scales, as Centigrade,
Temperature above the critical phase transformation range at which
castings are held as a part of the heat treatment cycle. The
temperature maintained when metal is held in a furnace, usually
prior to pouring.
The temperature of the metal as it is poured into the mold.
Martensite that has been heated to produce to BCC iron and a fine
dispersion of iron carbide. See Martensite.
Addition of water to and mixing molding sand to obtain uniform
distribution of moisture. See Molding Sand.
Tensile Strength (Ultimate Tensile Strength, UTS)
A measure of the amount of mechanical stress a material can
withstand before it fractures. Measured in pounds per square inch
(PSI), or thousands of pounds per square inch (KSI).
An alloy that contains three principal elements.
Standard specimen bar designed to permit determination of mechanical
properties of the metal from which it was poured.
A lug cast as a part of the casting and later removed for testing
The property of matter by which heat energy is transmitted through
particles in contact. For engineering purposes, the amount of heat
conducted through refractories is usually given in Btu per hour for
one square foot of area, for a temperature difference of one degree
Fahrenheit, and for a thickness of one inch, Btu/hr•ft•F/in.
The decrease in a linear dimension and volume of a material
accompanying a change of temperature.
The increase in a linear dimension and volume of a material
accompanying a change of temperature.
Failure resulting from rapid cycles of alternate heating and
Stress developed by rapid and uneven heating of a material.
Breaking up of refractory from stresses which arise during repeated
heating and cooling.
Resistance of a material to drastic changes in temperature.
Exothermic, self-propagating processes in which finely divided
aluminum powder is used to reduce metal oxides to free metals by
direct oxidation of aluminum to aluminum oxide, with accompanying
reduction of the less stable metal oxide. See Exothermic Reaction,
A device for measuring temperatures by the use of two dissimilar
metals in contact; the junction of these metals gives rise to a
measurable electrical potential which varies with the temperature of
the junction. Thermocouples are used to operate temperature
indicators or heat controls.
The technique of obtaining a photographic record of heat
distribution in a solid or fluid.
Rod-bar or rod-shaped part of the casting added to prevent
distortion caused by uneven contraction between separated members.
A type of flask which remains on mold during pouring. Lugs are
normally provided for clamping cope and drag together for pouring.
See Cope, Drag, Flask.
A chemical element having symbol Sn, formula weight 118.70, specific
gravity 7.31, and melting point 231.85°C.
Beads or exudations of a tin-rich low-melting phase found on the
surface of or on risers of bronze castings, which are usually caused
from absorption of hydrogen by the molten metal.
A white metallic element, melting point 1660°C (3020°F), having a
high strength-to-weight ratio; useful in aircraft parts.
The permissible deviation of a dimension from the nominal or desired
value. Minimum clearance between mating parts.
Metal instrument with two legs joined by a hinger for grasping and
holding things, e.g., crucible tongs.
Any high-carbon or alloy steel used to make a cutting tool for
machining metals and for metal-casting dies.
The fixed positions on the casting surfaces used for references
during layout and machining.
A wood board on the cope half of the mold to permit squeezing the
mold. See Squeeze Board.
The ability of the metal to absorb energy and to deform plastically
during fracture. Toughness values obtained in testing depend upon
the test temperature, the rate of loading, the size of the test
specimen, as well as the presence of a notch and its acuity.
Vertical, continuous core oven with suspended shelves attached to
Tramp Element (Trace)
Contaminant in the components of a furnace charge, or in the molten
metal or casting, whose presence is felt to be either unimportant or
undesirable to the quality of the casting.
A ladle that may be supported on a monorail or carried in a shank
and used to transfer metal from the melting furnace to the holding
furnace or from furnace to pouring ladles. See Ladle, Shank.
Transformation (Temperature) Range
The critical temperature at which a change in phase occurs. To
distinguish between the critical points in heating and cooling those
in heating are referred to as the Ac points (c for Chauffage or
heating) and those in cooling, Ar (r for Refroidissement).
Die for shearing (or shaving) flash from a die-casting.
Removing fins, gates, etc. from castings. See Casting, Gate, Fins.
Tool for sleeking, patching, and finishing a mold.
Manual pressing of sand under the flask bars, in pockets and around
gaggers where ramming alone fails to give desired density to ensure
firm placement. See Sand, Ramming, Flask.
A revolving metal, wood box, or barrel in which castings are
Steel-gray, metallic element, mp 3380°C (6116°F) used for electric
lamp filament, x-ray tube target, and as alloy element in high-speed
The base on which a centrifugal casting mold rests.
Opening in the cupola where the air blast enters. See Cupola.