The problems of cast foundry in China
Cast foundry as an important branch of heavy
industry, makes a great contribution to national economic
development. It is important to understand of the development of
China's foundry industry rationally, objectively and fairly.
2010, China's casting production reached 39.6 million tons,
accounting for 40% of world casting production, ranking first in the
world for 11 consecutive years. We have significantly improved
casting quality, been able to produce automobiles, diesel engines
and machine tools, wind power and other large, complex castings.
Many of them have replace imported products, filled the gap.
But we should clearly see that the cast foundries in China are still
1. Low levels of the casting process and the poor
quality of casting quality
1.1 Large casting allowance
Lacking of scientific design guidelines, it
is difficult for process designers to control the deformation and
casting allowance by
their own experiences. So, the dimensional accuracy is generally one
to three times more than that in developed foreign countries.
1.2 The segregation and inclusion of
large iron castings is
1.3 Serious casting crack problem.
1.4 Unreasonable gating system design.
Since poorly designed, there is gas volume,
impurities and other casting
defects, resulting in casting production rate and low
1.5 Lacking capability of high precision
The production capacity of ordinary
castings is excessive, the manufacture of high precision casting is
still difficult and the core technology and key products are still
dependent on imports.
2. High energy
consumption and raw material consumption
In China, the total energy consumption of
cast foundry industry accounts for 25% - 30% of machinery industry,
the average utilization of energy is 17%, which is about 2 times as
much as what in developed countries.
In China, one ton
ductile cast iron production
can consume 550-700 kg coal, while it is only 300-400 kg in
developed countries. Our country every produces 1 ton qualified
steel castings, the energy
consumption is 800 kg while it is 500-800kg aboard.
According to the statistics, the investment
of materials and energy accounts for 55%-70% of the total value.
China's gross weight is 10%-20% higher than that of in foreign. The
yield of casting steel production is 55% on average while it is 70%
3. Serious environmental pollution and difficult
Outdated equipment and backward technology,
rarely taking environmental issues into account, which have became a
serious problem in iron cast foundries in China.
Foundry enterprises with poor environment,
poor working conditions, backward technology and extensive
production accounted for more than 90% of all
iron foundries in China.
Environmental problems in China's cast
foundry industry are also reflected in the excessive consumption of
4. Talent shortage
A serious shortage of technical talent is
restricting the casting technology development.
4.1 The number of technical and
management personnel, the uneven distribution is relatively small.
The uneven distribution is prominent, the
plant technology and management only accounts for 12% of the total
number of employees at least, and 323% at most.
4.2 A small number of senior personnel.
4.3 The source of new talents is
To fundamentally solve the problems in cast
foundry, foundries need to understand the actual situation, find
their own shortage, and make effort to move close to international
standards. Cast foundries should enhance their product
competitiveness, improve productivity, reduce energy consumption and
take the road of sustainable development. Only in this way can we
see a brilliant future!