The Glossary of Foundry and Casting
To help metal casting buyers and sellers
to understand more about metal casting and foundry operation terms.
All terms have been arranged in alphabetical order.
The joining, usually by welding, of two or more parts to produce a
finished assembly. The components of the assembly may be a
combination of cast and wrought materials.
Refractory material applied to the face of a mold. See Mold,
Specially prepared molding sand used in the mold adjacent to the
pattern to produce a smooth casting surface. See Molding Sand.
A cheek used in making a three-part mold in a two-part mold.
The loss of load-bearing ability of a material under repeated load
application, as opposed to a single load.
A fracture starting from a nucleus where there is an abnormal
concentration of cyclic stress, and propagating through the metal.
Surface is smooth and frequently shows concentric markings with a
nucleus as the center.
Fatigue Limit (Endurance Limit)
Maximum stress that a material will endure without failure for an
infinite number of load cycles.
Maximum stress that a material will endure without failure for a
specified number of load cycles.
A reservoir of molten metal provided to compensate for contraction
of metal as it solidifies, by the feeding down of liquid metal to
prevent voids. Also called a riser. See Riser.
The volume of molten metal from which a casting feeds as it shrinks
(contracts) during solidification.
Sometimes referred to as a riser. A vertical channel in the mould
(part of the runner system) which forms the reservoir of molten
metal necessary to compensate for losses due to shrinkage as the
metal solidifies. See Riser.
Supplying additional molten metal to a casting to make up for volume
shrinkage during casting solidification. See Solidification.
Red iron oxide, Fe2O3, commonly available as hematite ore. Used in
ground form in cores and molds to increase hot compressive strength.
Iron practically carbon-free. It forms a body-centered-cubic-lattice
and may hold in solution considerable amounts of silicon, nickel, or
phosphorus; hence the term is also applied to solid solutions in
which alpha or delta iron is the solvent.
Steels in which ferrite is the predominant phase. These steels are
Alloys consisting of certain elements combined with iron, and used
to increase the amount of such elements in ferrous metals and
alloys. In some cases the ferroalloys may serve as deoxidizers. See
The ability to become highly magnetic and have the ability to retain
a permanent magnetic moment. The elementary magnetic dipoles inside
the domain are all oriented in a direction parallel to each other.
An alloy of iron and phosphorus containing about 70% iron and 25%
phosphorus. See Alloy.
Pressure induced by a head of liquid iron or steel.
A British term meaning the process of removing all runners and
risers and cleaning off adhering sand from the casting. Also refers
to the removal of slag from the inside of the cupola and in Britain
to repair the bed of an open hearth. See Casting, Risers, Runners.
A concave corner piece, often a preformed strip of leather or wax,
used on foundry patterns used at the intersection of two surfaces to
round out a sharp corner.
The filtering out of unwanted gases in the casting, at pouring off
portion of making the casting.
A thin projection of metal from the casting, formed as a result of
imperfect mold or core joints. See Casting, Core.
Sand grain sizes substantially smaller than the predominating grain
sized in a molding sand; also material remaining on 200- and
270-mesh sieves and pan after tests for grain size and distribution.
Amount of metal allowed for machining.
The hand work on a mold after the pattern has been withdrawn. See
The amount of stock left on the surface of a casting for machining.
A symbol (f, f1, f2, etc.) appearing on the line of a drawing that
represents the edge of the surface of the casting to be machined or
Production welding carried out in order to ensure the agreed quality
of the casting.
Finite Difference Analysis (FDA)
A computerized numerical modeling approach for solving differential
equations. Used primarily in solving heat transfer and
Finite Element Analysis (FEA)
A computerized numerical analysis technique used for solving
differential equations to primarily solved mechanical engineering
problems relating to stress analysis.
Brick made of refractory clay or other material which resists high
A type of clay which is resistant to high temperatures.
See Pencil Core.
A surface hardening process involving localized flame heating to
above the austenite transformation temperature, Ac3, followed by
quenching. See Ac3.
Term used in connection with zinc-bearing alloys, particularly
manganese bronze, to denote evolution of zinc oxide fumes during
Thin fin or web of metal extending from the casting along the joint
line due to the cope and drag not matching completely or where core
and coreprint do not match.
A metal or wood rigid frame without top and without fixed bottom
used to hold the sand of which a mold is formed; usually consisting
of two parts, cope and drag. See Cope, Drag, Mold.
A reinforcing member attached within either half of a flask to
assist in holding the rammed sand in position. See Flask, Ramming.
A device for holding together the cope, drag, and cheek of a flask.
Flask Pin Guides
Guides used to accurately align the match plate pattern in the flask
and flask to flask location.
Assure proper alignment of cope and drag molds after the pattern is
withdrawn. See Cope, Drag, Mold, Pattern.
A removable flask which can be stripped vertically from the mold.
A hinged flask which can be removed from the mold after completion.
Flask which remains on the mold. See Flask.
Wide gate with narrow opening into the mold. It is used to pour
thin, flat castings. See Gate.
A pattern with a flat surface at the joint of the mold. It lies
wholly within the drag or cope, and this joint of the mold is a
plane surface. See Cope, Drag, Mold, Pattern.
Property of a foundry sand mixture which enables it to fill pattern
recesses and move in any direction against pattern surfaces under
Large vent, usually located at the high point of a mold cavity. In
addition to letting air and mold gases escape during a pour, the
flow-off fills with metal and is allowed to run or flow during the
final stage of pouring. See Mold Cavity.
Ability of molten metal to flow readily; usually measured by the
length of a standard spiral casting.
To impart fluid like properties to powders or sands e.g. fluidized
Fluorescent Crack Detection
Application of penetrating fluorescent liquid to a part, then
removing the excess from the surface, which is then exposed to
ultraviolet light. Cracks show up as fluorescent lines.
Any substance used to promote fusion. Also any material which
reduces, oxidizes, or decomposes impurities so that they are carried
off as slags or gases.
A board shaped to the parting line of the mold. See Mold, Parting
The art and science of melting and casting of metals and alloys into
useful objects that serve the needs of industry. It is better known
as metal casting.
Foundry (Foundries, plural)
The act, process, or art of casting metals. The buildings and works
for casting metals.
A vessel for holding molten metal and conveying it from cupola to
the molds. See Cupola, Mold.
Metal in the form of sprues, gates, runners, risers and scrapped
castings, with known chemical composition that are returned to the
furnace for remelting. Sometimes referred to as "revert ".
Foundry sand is used in creating cores and molds used in the casting
of iron, steel, copper and aluminum products. In construction, steel
and iron beams-known as girders-are used in the building of bridges,
large office buildings and some homes. Copper pipes, aluminum
supports and even the hardware and hand tools used in construction
had their origins at the foundry. Foundry sand is the second largest
industrial use of sand in terms of tons consumed. See Casting, Core,
Free On Board (F.O.B.)
This is a historical transportation industry term. It deals with who
pays the shipping charges on goods produced. The term is a pricing
agreement which does not include the carriage charges, from the
seller, to the buyer of a product. The seller absorbs the freight
charges, the carriage charges, the destination charges, the shipping
charges, etc., whatever you wish to call the expense to move the
material from the seller to the buyer. There may well be third party
billing of these carriage charges. The seller may well have
incorporated these charges in the selling price, but does not
invoice the buyer for that fee. Remember..."Free On Board," equates
to a remembrance thought factor of ..."Free Onto The Buyer"...or
F.O.B. as the early traffic managers so coined the term.
Term used to denote the solidification process. See Solidification.
The displacement and/or detachment of metallic particles from a
surface as a consequence of being in contact with another moving
Used in hydraulics as an analog to the Reynolds number. It is the
ratio of inertial forces to gravitational forces.
Generic term for a family of chemical compounds including furfural
and furfuryl alcohol sued as binders for core sands.
Change from a solid to a fluid state caused by application of heat.
The original length of that portion of the specimen over which
strain or change of length is determined.
Reference marks; in tensile testing, the marks which indicate the
gage length, used in determination of tensile elongation.
A metal piece of irregular shape (usually an L shape) used to
reinforce and support sand in deep pockets of molds. There are two
types; straight or hooked (cast or steel rods).
Checking dimensional requirement by means of a gage.
One of the allotropic (polymorphic) forms of iron which crystallizes
in the face-centered-cubic lattice form. When pure, its range of
stability is from 1,670°F to 2,552°F (910°C to 1400°C).
An acid (silicious) refractory often used in furnace linings.
Rounded cavities caused by generation or accumulation of gas or
entrapped air in a casting; holes may be spherical, flattened or
A condition existing in a casting caused by the trapping of gas in
the molten metal, or by mold gases evolved during the pouring of the
Specifically, the point at which molten metal enters the casting
cavity. Sometimes employed as a general term to indicate the entire
assembly of connected columns and channels carrying the metal from
the top of the mold to that part forming the casting cavity proper.
This term is also applied to pattern parts that form the passages,
or to the metal that fills them.
One or more patterns with gating systems attached. See Gate,
The complete arrangement of gates, runners, and sprues through which
molten metal flows into the cavity of the mold. See Cavity, Gate,
Molds, Runners, Sprues.
Natural black lustrous asphalt found in the Uinta Mountains in Utah
and also known as uintaite. It is used as a carbonaceous addition to
The pressure vessel or metal injection mechanism in a
hot-chamber-type die-casting machine.
Abrasion involving gross surface indentation and possible removal of
sizable metal fragments.
The grade of an iron, usually given by three successive numbers, the
first being the tensile strength (KSI), the second the yield
strength (KSI), and the third the elongation (%).
Grain Fineness Number
A system developed by AFS for rapidly expressing the average grain
size of a given sand. It approximates the number of meshes per inch
of that sieve that would just pass the sample if its grains of
uniform size. It is approximately proportional to the surface area
per unit of weight of sand, exclusive of clay.
Any material added to a liquid metal or alloy or treatment which
produces a finer grain size in the subsequent solid.
Crystals in metals and alloys.
Granular Fracture (Crystalline fracture)
A type of irregular surface produced when metal is broken.
A structure formed from ordinary lamellar pearlite by long annealing
at a temperature below but near to the critical point, causing the
cementite to spheroidize in a ferrite matrix.
Native carbon in hexagonal crystals, also foliated or granular
massive, of black color with metallic luster, and soft. Used for
crucibles, foundry facings, lubricants, etc. Also made artificially
by passing alternating current through a mixture of petroleum coke
and coal tar pitch. See Coke, Crucible.
Carbon precipitated as graphite flakes while the iron cools through
the freezing eutectic in which austenite, graphite, molten iron, and
carbide exist together. Usually with reference to white fracture
Graphite formed by decomposition of austenite during slow cooling of
The decomposition of carbide to give free carbon as graphite or as
Any substance, such as silicon, titanium, aluminum, etc., which
promotes the formation of graphite in cast iron compositions.
Iron in which a large percentage of the carbon content is in the
form of graphite flakes. Traditionally referred to as “Cast Iron”.
The graphite flakes cause it to have low shock resistance, but high
damping ability. It has a gray fracture. Gray Iron is by far the
oldest and most common form of cast iron. As a result, it is assumed
by many to be the only form of cast iron and the terms "cast iron"
and "gray iron" are used interchangeably. Cast iron containing
graphite in flake form and typically consisting of 2 to 4 percent
carbon and 1 to 3 percent silicon. Gray iron is widely used for
engine components in automobiles and trucks. See Cast Iron.
Gray Iron Meltimg
The process of melting gray iron, especially as it is done in a
foundry on a commercial scale. See Gray Iron.
Gray Iron Quality Control
The application of quality control practices to the manufacture of
gray iron. See Gray Iron.
Property of a molded mass of sand in its tempered condition which is
a measure of its ability to permit the passage of gases through it.
Natural sands combined with water and organic additives, such as
clay, to proper consistency for creating molds. See Core, Molds,
Green Sand Core
A core that is made of molding sand but not baked.
Tenacity (compressive, shear, tensile, or transverse) of a tempered
sand mixture at room temperature.
Removing gate stubs, fins, and other projections on castings by an
abrasive wheel. See Casting, Gate, Fins.
With reference to cast iron, permanent increase in volume that
results from continued or repeated cyclic heating and cooling at
elevated temperatures. For unalloyed iron, temperature is in excess
of 900° F, and growth is cause by decomposition or graphitization of
carbides and by oxidation of the graphite. See Cast Iron.
The pin on a flask used to locate the cope in the proper place on
the drag; also used to locate cheeks. See Cope, Cheek, Drag, Flask.
Calcined calcium sulfate, commonly called plaster of Paris.
Hadfield Manganese Steel
A specialty steel which is austenitic and usually contains
approximately 12% Manganese. It is used in mining, earth- moving
equipment and in railroad track work.
Hand Ladle Or Shank
A small ladle carried by one man. See Ladle.
Hard Sand Match (Match Plate)
A body of sand shaped to conform to the parting line upon which a
pattern is laid in starting to make a mold. Sand is made hard by
addition of linseed oil and litharge, Portland cement, etc. See
In a ferrous alloy, the property that determines the depth and
distribution of hardness induced by quenching.
Resistance of a material to indentation as measured by such methods
as Brinell, Rockwell, and Vickers. The term hardness also refers to
stiffness of a material, or its resistance to scratching, abrasion,
or cutting. See BHN, Brinell Hardness, Vickers Diamond.
Relative term referring to the resistance of a metal to plastic
deformation from a given standard load applied on a standard
penetration head. See BHN, Brinell Hardness, Vickers Diamond.
The pressure exerted by a column of fluid, such as molten metal,
The reservoir of metal in the feeder or riser of a mold. See Mold,
Sand in piles on the foundry floor.
That portion of a reverberatory furnace on which the molten metal or
A single furnace charge of metal to be used for pouring directly
into mold cavities; a heat may be all of part of a master heat. See
Transmission of heat from one body to another by radiation,
convection, or conduction.
A combination of heating and cooling operations timed and applied to
a metal or alloy in the solid state in a manner which will produce
Metal left in a ladle after pouring, or in a furnace after or
High Pressure Mold
A strong high-density mold, made by air, hydraulic, or other squeeze
High Stress Grinding Abrasion
Abrasion that occurs when the abrasive is crushed between two
Ferrous alloy with more than 12 weight percent of noncarbon
Casting contraction during solidification and cooling which is
hindered by mold or core restraints.
Usually a small furnace for maintaining molten metal at the proper
pouring temperature, and which is supplied from a large melting
Heavily lined and insulated ladle in which molten metal is placed
until it can be used. See Holding Furnace.
Hollow Drill Test (Trepanning)
Removing a cylindrical sample from a metal section or structure to
determine soundness of the section.
A process of heat treatment at high temperature intended to
eliminate or decrease chemical segregation by diffusion.
Horizontal Axis Casting Machine
A centrifugal casting machine in which the axis of rotation of the
mold is horizontal.
Curved gate in the shape of a horn arranged to permit entry of
molten metal at the bottom of the casting cavity. See Casting,
Hot Box Process
Method of making and curing cores within a heated corebox. To form
and cure the core, the corebox is heated to approximately 500
degrees F. The sand used in this process contains a catalyst which
hardens the binders in the core upon contact with the hot corebox.
Complete curing while the core is still in the box results from the
residual heat in the core, eliminating the need for conventional
dryers or ovens. Frequently, cores created with the Hot Box process
are shell cores. See Core.
Hot Deformation (Sand)
Change of form of a sand specimen which accompanies the
determination of hot strength.
Brittleness in metal at elevated temperature.
Areas of extra mass usually found at the junction of sections.
Hot Strength (Sand)
Tenacity (compressive, shear or transverse) of a sand mixture
determined at any temperature above room temperature.
Irregularly shaped fracture in a casting formed prior to completion
of metal solidification resulting from stresses set up by steep
thermal gradients within the casting during solidification and too
much rigidity of the core or mold material. See Core,
Cracks in metal castings formed at elevated temperatures by
contraction stresses. See Casting.
A furan resin based process which uses heated metal coreboxes to
produce cores. See Core Box, Furans.
Abbreviation for high strength low alloy steel. Steel with
relatively high strength and impact properties. The carbon level is
low and the alloying additions are significantly less than 5 weight
Hunter molding is a sand molding process used to make sand molds.
Hunter molding is yet another sand molding process named after the
company that makes the machine, Hunter Automated Machinery
Corporation. Hunter molding machines are horizontally parted
matchplate molding machines, as opposed to the Disamatic vertically
parted machines. See Disamatic Molding.
A condition of low ductility resulting from the absorption of
hydrogen. A time dependent fracture process which results in a loss
of ductility. See Ductility.
An alloy containing more than the eutectic amounts of the solutes.
Analogous to hypereutectiod. See Alloy.
An alloy containing more than the eutectic composition. See Alloy,
A steel containing more than the eutectoid percentage of carbon
(0.83 wt. %). See Eutectic.
Hysteresis (Cooling Lag)
Difference between the critical points on heating and cooling due to
tendency of physical changes to lag behind temperature changes.
Term for internal dimension grinding.
Ideal Critical Diameter, D1
The largest diameter of a bar which, upon quenching in an ideal
quench, will exhibit 50% martensite at the center of the bar. See
A quench in which the temperature of an object being quenched
instantaneously drops to that of the quench bath and remains
constant. See Quenching.
Illinois Inclusion Count Method
A determination of the index number of cleanliness of steel. See
A mineral, typically KAl 3Si 3O 10(OH)2, found in many clays, large
working of which are found in Illinois and Michigan.
The resistance to impact loads; usually expressed as the foot pounds
of energy absorbed in breaking a standard specimen. See Charpy
Total energy needed to break a standard specimen by a single blow
under standard conditions; e.g. Charpy Impact Test.
Loss of any constituent from an alloy or from localized areas of an
alloy by oxidation, liquidation, volatilization, or changes in the
solid state. The term depletion is also used, particularly in
referring to the lowering of the concentration of solute in a solid
solution, around particles precipitated from solid solution.
A treatment process using a sealing medium for salvaging leaky
castings by injecting under pressure liquid synthetic resins, tung
oil, etc., into the porous area. This material is then solidified in
place by heating or baking. Other mediums used include silicate of
soda, drying oils with or without styrene, plastics, and proprietary
Cavity in a die-casting die or in a mold. See Cavity, Mold.
An element unintentional allowed in a metal or alloy. Some
impurities have little effect on properties; others will grossly
damage the alloy.
Particles of slag, refractory materials, sand or deoxidation
products trapped in the casting during solidification. See Dirty
An oxidation-resistant alloy, 80% Ni, 14% Cr, and 6% Fe.
The resistance of a material to indentation. This is the usual type
of hardness test, in which a pointed or rounded indenter is pressed
into a surface under a substantially static load. See BHN, Brinell
An AC, Alternating Current, electric-arc furnace in which the metal
is not one of the poles. An electric furnace in which the arc is
struck between two horizontal electrodes, heating the metal charge
An AC melting furnace which utilizes the heat of electrical
A surface hardening process involving the localized use of pulsating
magnetic currents to achieve heating above the austenite
transformation temperature, Ac3, followed by quenching. See Ac3,
Process of heating by electrical resistance and hysteresis losses
induced by subjecting a metal to the varying magnetic field
surrounding a coil carrying an alternating current.
A gas that will not support combustion or sustain any chemical
reaction; e.g., argon or helium.
A core or mold dryer employing infrared lamps. See Core Dryers.
Infrared Radiation Pyrometer
This instrument which uses the ratio of the radiated energy from a
body in two wavelength bands and then is a measure of the body's
surface temperature. Temperatures down to 200°C (392°F) may be
measured. See Pyrometer.
Pertaining to or designating those rays which lie just beyond the
red end of the visible spectrum, such as are emitted by a hot
non-incandescent body. They are invisible and nonactinic and are
detected y their thermal effect. Their wave lengths are longer than
those of visible light and shorter than those of radio waves. Can be
applied in the foundry for drying or core baking operations and for
heating dies. Infrared radiant heat are synonymous. See Foundry.
Infusorial Earth (Diatomite, Fossil flour, Mountain meal, Mountain
flour, Tripolite, Kieselguhr)
A very fine whitish powder composed of the siliceous skeletons of
The channels through which molten metal enters the mold cavity. See
Casting to be later forged or hot worked. Also, a form used for
convenient handling of cast iron, aluminum, and other commercial
metals. i.e., Pigs. See Cast Iron.
Iron of comparatively high purity produced in open-hearth furnace
under conditions that keep down the carbon, manganese, and silicon
content; e.g., Armco Iron. See Cast Iron.
Forcing molten metal into a die-casting die. Also refers to forcing
oxygen, nitrogen, and other gases, as well as solids such as calcium
carbide and graphite, into molten metal.
The injection of molten metal or other material under pressure into
molds. See Molds.
Materials, which when added to molten metal, modify the structure
and thereby change the physical and mechanical properties.
A process of adding some material to molten metal in the ladle for
the purpose of controlling the structure to an extent not possible
by control of chemical analysis and other normal variables.
A part usually formed from metal, which is placed in a mold and may
become an integral part of the casting. See Casting, Mold.
Insulating Pads And Sleeves
As opposed to chills, insulating material, such as gypsum,
diatomaceous earth, etc., used to lower the rate of solidification.
As sleeves on open risers, they are used to keep the metal liquid,
thus increasing the feed efficiency. See Solidification.
Hollow cylinders or sleeves formed of gypsum, diatomaceous earth,
pearlite, vermiculite, etc. Placed in the mold at sprue and riser
locations to decrease heat loss and rate of solidification of the
metal contained in them. See Riser, Sprue.
Integral Dose (Volume Dose)
A measure of the total energy absorbed by man or any object during
exposure to radiation.
Amount of energy per unit time passing through a unit area
perpendicular to the line of propagation at the point in question.
Often this term is used incorrectly in the sense of dose rate.
A patented procedure for die casting "cast-assemble" units with
Cracks or fractures that follow along the grain boundaries in the
microstructure of metals and alloys.
A type of electrochemical corrosion that sometimes occurs in as-cast
alloys or alloys that have had very little working.
Corrosion in a metal taking place preferentially along the grain
Solid pieces of metal or alloy, similar in composition to the
casting, placed in the mold prior to filling it with molten metal.
They increase the rate of solidification in their areas and are
employed only where feeding is difficult or impossible.
Ability of a metal to transform vibratory energy into heat;
generally refers to low stress levels of vibration; damping has a
broader connotation since it may refer to stresses approaching or
exceeding yield strength.
A void or network of voids within a casting caused by inadequate
feeding of that section during solidification. See Solidification,
Internal Stresses (or Thermal stresses)
Generally stresses which occur during the cooling of a part.
International Molders & Allied Workers Union of America
International Molders & Allied Workers Union of America - see trade
Removing the casting from a quenching bath before it has reached the
temperature of the bath. See Quenching.
An alloy having practically no expansion when heated; 36% Ni, 0.5%
Mn, 0.2% C, and the balance Fe.
A condition in an iron casting section in which the interior is
mottled or white while the outer sections are gray. This condition
is also called reverse chill, internal chill, or inverted chill.
A concentration of certain alloy constituents that have lower
melting points in the region corresponding to that first
solidifying; caused by interdendritic flow of enriched liquid
through channels where the pressure drops with contraction of
dendrites. The internal evolution of hydrogen may also give a
positive pressure, aiding this flow and causing a liquidated surface
as tin sweat. See Segregation.
A change in crystal form without change in chemical composition, as
from quartz to cristobalite.
The metal is fed through a bottom feeder, the mold being inverted
The process of pouring the investment slurry into the flask
surrounding the pattern to form the mold. See Flask, Mold.
A flowable mixture of a graded refractory filler, a binder and a
liquid vehicle which when poured around the patterns conforms to
their shape and subsequently set hard to form the investment mold.
See Investment Casting.
A pattern casting process in which a wax or thermoplastic pattern is
used. The pattern is invested (surrounded) by a refractory slurry.
After the mold is dry, the pattern is melted or burned out of the
mold cavity, and molten metal is poured into the resulting cavity.
See Lost Wax Process.
Investment Casting Process
A pattern casting process in which a wax or thermoplastic pattern is
used. The pattern is invested (surrounded) by a refractory slurry.
After the mold is dry, the pattern is melted or burned out of the
mold cavity, and molten metal is poured into the resulting cavity.
See Mold Cavity.
Method of molding using a pattern of wax, plastic, or other material
which is "invested" or surrounded by a molding medium in slurry or
liquid form. After the molding medium has solidified, the pattern is
removed by subjecting the mold to heat, leaving a cavity for
reception of molten metal. This is also called the lost-wax process
or precision molding. See Lost Wax Process, Investment Casting.
An extremely fine investment coating applied as a thin slurry
directly to the surface of the pattern to reproduce maximum surface
smoothness. The coating is surrounded by a coarser, cheaper, and
permeable investment to form the mold. See Dip Coat.
Refractory lining of the inwall section of blast furnace or cupola.
See Blast Furnace, Cupola, Refractory.
The process or the result of any process by which a neutral atom or
molecule acquires either a positive or a negative charge.
An instrument designed to measure quantity of ionizing radiation in
terms of the charge of electricity associated with ions produced
within a defined volume.
A noble metal of the platinum group. Usually extensively as a
radiation source. For radiography of thin walled castings.
A metallic element, mp 1535°C (2795°F). Also irons that do not fall
into the steel categories, such as Gray Iron, Ductile Iron,
Malleable Iron, White Iron, Ingot, and Wrought Iron. See Gray Iron,
Ductile Iron, Malleable Iron, White Iron, Ingot.
This material as prepared for foundry use generally contains about
85% ferric oxide and is produced by pulverizing a high grade of pure
iron ore. It can be added to core sand mixes to assist in keeping
the core from cracking before the metal solidifies during the
casting operation and also helps to resist metal penetration during
this period. Added to molding sand mixtures for control of finning
and veining. Also may reduce carbon pick up.
Iron, Hard Or White
Irons (Fe3C) possessing white fracture because all or substantially
all of the carbon is in the combined form. Irons to be malleablized
are cast white, as are many abrasion-resistant irons.
A mixture of iron and carbon, including smaller amounts of silicon,
manganese, phosphorus, and sulfur, which after being cast (white
iron, carbon in combined form as carbides) is converted structurally
by heat treatment into a matrix of ferrite containing nodules of
temper carbon (graphite).
Iron, Pearlitic Malleable
A malleable iron having a more or less pearlitic matrix.
Iron, White Or Hard
Iron of suitable composition in which the castings, later to be
malleableized, are originally cast. Carbon is in the combined form;
hence it’s white fracture and name.
Iron-Carbon (Graphite) Diagram
A diagram representing stable equilibrium conditions between iron
and graphite (pure carbon) phase over the entire range of iron and
Iron-Iron Carbide Diagram
A phase diagram representing metastable equilibrium conditions
between Fe and Fe3C over the entire range of carbon steels and cast
A black sand which consists mainly of magnetic iron ore but also
contains a considerable amount of titanium.
Trade name of a binder system developed for use in the cold box
process of core construction.
Isomeric cyanic acid (HNCO).
Phases with crystal structures of the same type.
Pertaining to changes or other phenomena occurring at a constant
A process in which a ferrous alloy is heated to produce a structure
partly or wholly austenitic, and is then cooled to and held at a
temperature that causes transformation of the Austenite to a
relatively soft ferric-carbide aggregate. See Austenite, Annealing.
The process of transforming Austenite in a ferrous ally to Ferrite
or a ferrite-carbide aggregate at any constant temperature within
the transformation range. The transformation of one phase in an
alloy system to another phase at any constant temperature.
One of several different nuclides having the same number of protons
in their nuclei, and hence having the same atomic number, but
differing in the number of neutrons and therefore in the mass