Metal castings are the base of industry.
There are many types of cast metal methods, patterns and casting
Cast Metal Methods
1. Manual Green Sand Molding Method
This casting method is the most common and cheapest in China and
worldwide. Moreover, it can produce iron castings from dozens of
grams to half of tons. In addition, it is suitable for small batch
production and middle volume production.
However, the production rate is very normal. The metal castings have
many defects, and do not have high dimensional tolerance.
2. Automatic Molding Method
This method is also using green sand as the main molding material,
however, different with manual green sand casting method, it uses
automatic molding equipments, which is suitable for large batch
production, better dimensional tolerance, less metal casting
But it has limitation to the casting sizes and annual demand. It is
not suitable to produce too small and too large castings, and not
suitable to small orders.
3. Resin Sand Molding Method
Furan resin sand molds are a type of
hard molds, so it can be used to produce large iron castings up to 2
tons. Moreover, it can meet higher dimensional tolerance and less
However, its production cost is high, and production rate is low.
But there are many iron foundries in China using this method to
produce large and complex cast metals.
4. Shell Molding Method
This method is also using a type of
resin hard mold, so it can use to produce small and complex iron
castings, but its casting prices are higher than furan resin sand.
5. Lost Wax Investment Molding Method
This cast metal method normally produces
steel castings in China. Since it uses wax, water glass or silica
sol as the main materials, so its dimensional tolerance, surface
quality and casting defects are very good.
This method is a type of precision casting process, and its metal
casting prices are very high.
6. Die Casting Method
This method is normally used for producing aluminum and zinc
castings. There is no sand casting defects, and its casting quality
and cast metal density are very good because some press involved .
The production rate is also good, just production costs are not low.
7. Permanent Mold Casting Method
This method is also normally used to produce aluminum and zinc
castings. Different with die casting, this method could produce
8. Continuous Molding Method
This method is for producing metal sheet, bars or tubes. Its casting
quality is very good, but it is not flexible, only can be used to
produce simple and continuous castings.
In order to make metal castings, the patterns are necessary. There
are mainly several types of patterns.
1. Wooden Pattern
Wooden patterns can be used for manual green sand casing method,
steel sand castings, and resin sand casting methods.
These patterns are cheap, however, its strength is low, and easily
deformed and damaged, so normally only used to make samples. They
are not suitable for batch production.
2. Resin Pattern
The pattern is also called as plastic pattern, so fully called as
fiber glass reinforced epoxy resin pattern.
The resin patterns have long life time, and much more cheaper than
metal patterns, however, its dimensions and surface quality will not
be as good as metal patterns, and they can not be used to produce
complex metal castings.
3. Metal Patterns
Metal patterns include aluminum patterns, iron patterns and alloy
steel patterns. Most cast metal patterns were made directly by 3D
drawings and CNC centers, so they have very high dimensions,
complexity and surface quality.
Permanent Mold Casting Pattern
This is the steel patterns for permanent
mold casting method. The alloy steel has higher melting point than
aluminum and zinc metals, so it could be used to produce aluminum
and zinc castings.
Die Casting Pattern
This is the metal patterns for die casting
Lost Foam Casting Pattern
This is the metal patterns for lost foam
casting method. The foundries use these metal patterns to make many
foam molds, then use the foam molds to produce iron and steel
Lost Wax Investment Casting Pattern
This is the iron patterns used for lost wax
investment casting method. The foundries use it to make wax molds,
then use the wax molds and water glass materials to make steel
These are some cast metal parts made by
various casting methods.
This is the manhole castings made by manual
green sand casting method. The material is grey cast iron.
This is the ductile iron castings made by
furan resin sand casting method.
This is the small stove burner heads made
by shell molding method. The material is gray cast iron.
This is the manifold castings made by shell
and core molding method. The material is grey iron.
The is the steel casting, valve bodies made
by sand casting method.
The is the alloy steel castings made by
lost wax investment casting method.
This is the aluminum alloy castings made by
die casting method.