ASTM A 834 Common Requirements Standard for Iron
Castings for General Industrial Use
This speciﬁcation also covers a group of
supplementary requirements which may be applied to the above speciﬁcations
as indicated herein. These are provided for use when additional
testing or inspection is desired and apply only when speciﬁed
individually by the purchaser in the order.
1. Ordering Information
The purchase order for castings ordered under this speciﬁcation
shall stipulate the applicable material speciﬁcation(s), grade of
iron, and any options or additions to the basic requirements,
including the supplementary requirements included in this speciﬁcation.
2. Tensile Requirements
The individual product speciﬁcations vary as to whether tension
tests are required. For this reason, and to determine speciﬁc test
requirements, the individual product speciﬁcation shall be reviewed.
When required, tension tests shall be determined in accordance with
Test Methods E 8.
3. Chemical Requirements
3.1 The individual product speciﬁcations vary as to whether chemical
analysis is required. To determine speciﬁc requirements, the
individual product speciﬁcation should be reviewed.
3.2 Sampling shall be conducted in accordance with Test Method E 59.
Spectrographic or other methods such as those in Test Methods E 30
and E 351 may be used for chemical analysis. In the event of a
dispute regarding chemical composition, Test Methods E 351 and E 30
shall be used for referee purposes.
3.3 The chemical analysis for total carbon shall be made on chilled
pencil-type specimens or from thin wafers approximately 1 ⁄ 32 in.
(0.8 mm) thick cut from test coupons. Drillings are not reliable
because of a probable loss of graphite.
3.4 Chemical analysis results shall be rounded, in accordance with
Practice E 29, to the nearest unit in the last right-hand place of
values in the table of chemical requirements.
3.5 A product analysis may be made by the purchaser from material
representing each heat, lot, or casting. The analysis shall be made
on representative material. Samples for carbon analysis shall be
taken no closer than ¼ into a cast surface, and shall follow the
practice in 5.3, except where the size or shape of the casting does
not permit such sampling. The chemical composition thus determined
shall meet the requirements speciﬁed in the applicable speciﬁcation
for the grade involved.
4. Workmanship, Finish, and Appearance
All castings shall be made in a workman-like manner and shall
conform to the dimensions on drawings furnished by the purchaser
before manufacture is started. If the pattern is supplied by the
purchaser, the dimensions of the casting shall be as predicted by
5.1 A lot shall consist of one of the following:
5.1 All the metal from a single heating in a batch–type melting
5.2 All the metal poured from two or more batch–type melting
furnaces into a single ladle or a single casting.
5.3 All the metal poured from a continuous melting furnace for a
given period of time between changes in charge, processing
conditions, or aim-for chemistry, or 4 h, whichever is the shorter
5.4 The purchaser may agree to extend the 4-h time period to 8 h if
the manufacturer can demonstrate sufficient process control to
warrant such an extension.
6.1 All tests and inspections required by this speciﬁcation shall be
performed by the manufacturer or other reliable sources whose
services have been contracted for by the manufacturer. Complete
records of all tests and inspections shall be maintained by the
manufacturer and shall be available for review by the purchaser.
6.2 The manufacturer shall afford the purchaser’s inspector all
reasonable facilities necessary to satisfy that the material is
being produced and furnished in accordance with the applicable speciﬁcation.
Foundry inspection by the purchaser shall not interfere
unnecessarily with the manufacturer’s operations.
6.3 When agreed upon between manufacturer and purchaser, test
specimens or unbroken test bars from the same lot shall be saved for
a period of 3 months after date of the test report.
6.4 When unbroken test bars are reprocessed with castings for
rehearing, test specimens from these bars shall be saved, as
described in 9.3.
6.5 The purchaser reserves the right to perform any inspections set
forth in the speciﬁcation where such inspections are deemed
necessary to assure that supplies and services conform to the
Any repair shall be made in accordance with the requirements of the
individual speciﬁcation using procedures qualiﬁed by the
manufacturer for the type of repair involved.
8. Rejection and Rehearing
Castings which fail to conform to the requirements speciﬁed when
inspected or tested by the purchaser or his agent may be rejected.
Rejection shall be reported to the manufacturer or supplier promptly
and in writing. In case of dissatisfaction with the test results,
the manufacturer or supplier may make claim for a rehearing.
9. Packaging and Package Marking
9.1 Unless otherwise speciﬁed in the contract or purchase order,
cleaning, preservation, and packaging of castings shall be in
accordance with the manufacturer’s commercial practice. Packing and
marking shall also be adequate to identify the contents and to
ensure acceptance and safe delivery by the carrier for the mode of
9.2 Government Procurement —When speciﬁed in the con- tract or
purchase order, marking for shipment shall be in accordance with the
requirements of Fed. Std. No. 123 for civil agencies and MIL-STD-129
for military activities.
10. Quality Assurance
10.1 The surface of the casting shall be free of adhering sand,
scale, cracks, and hot tears as determined by visual examination.
Other surface discontinuities shall meet the visual acceptance
standards speciﬁed in the order. Visual Practice A 802/A 802M or
other visual standards may be used to deﬁne acceptable surface
discontinuities and ﬁnish. Unacceptable visual surface
discontinuities shall be removed and their removal veriﬁed by visual
examination of the resultant cavities.
When additional inspection is desired, Supplementary Requirements
S1, S2, or S3 may be speciﬁed.
Supplementary requirements shall be applied only when speciﬁed by
the purchaser. Details of the supplementary requirements shall be
agreed upon by the manufacturer and purchaser. The speciﬁed tests
shall be performed by the manufacturer prior to shipment of the
S1. Magnetic Particle Examination
S1.1 Castings shall be examined for surface discontinuities by
magnetic particle examination. The examination shall be in
accordance with Practice E 709. The extent of examination and the
basis for acceptance shall be agreed upon between the manufacturer
S2. Radiographic Examination
S2.1 Castings shall be examined for internal defects by means of
X-rays or gamma rays. The procedure shall be in accordance with
Guide E 94, and types and degrees of discon- tinuities considered
shall be judged by Reference Radiographs E 689 and E 802. The extent
of examination and basis for acceptance shall be agreed upon between
the manufacturer and purchaser.
S3. Liquid Penetrant Examination
S3.1 Castings shall be examined for surface discontinuities by means
of liquid penetrant examination. The examination shall be in
accordance with Practice E 165. Areas to be inspected, methods and
types of liquid penetrants to be used, developing procedure, and
basis for acceptance shall be agreed upon between the manufacturer
S4.1 The manufacturer’s certiﬁcation shall be furnished to the
purchaser stating that the material was manufactured, sampled,
tested, and inspected in accordance with the material speciﬁcation,
including the year date, and was found to meet the requirements.
Additionally, the certiﬁcation shall include for each lot the
results of all tests required by the material speciﬁcation and any
supplementary or additional requirements imposed by the purchase
S4.2 A signature is not required on the certiﬁcation or test report.
However, the document shall clearly identify the organization
submitting the certiﬁcation and the authorized agent of the
manufacturer who certiﬁed the test results. Notwithstanding the
absence of a signature, the organization submitting the certiﬁcation
is responsible for its content.
S4.3 The test report shall be furnished within 5 working days of
shipment of the castings.
S5. Prior Approval of Major Repairs
S5.1 Major repairs as deﬁned and agreed upon between the
manufacturer and purchaser shall be subject to the prior approval of
S6.1 The manufacturer’s name or identiﬁcation mark and the part
identiﬁcation number shall be cast or stamped on all castings. When
further speciﬁed, lot numbers shall be marked on individual
S6.2 When the castings are of such size that individual marking is
impracticable, they shall be grouped by part identiﬁcation or lot
number and placed in a container. The container shall be marked with
the required identiﬁcation.
S7. Hardness Test
S7.1 Hardness measurements at speciﬁed locations on the castings
shall be made in accordance with Test Method E 10 and reported.